• primary generalized dystonia;
  • deep brain stimulation;
  • clinical outcome predictors;
  • globus pallidus internus


Despite the beneficial effects of Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with primary generalized dystonia (PGD), the degree of improvement varies from one patient to another. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of clinical, anatomical (volume of the GPi), and electrical variables on the postoperative Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS) motor score to identify which factors may be predictive of the degree of improvement. We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 40 steady-state patients with PGD who had been treated by bilateral GPi lead implantation. The follow-up period was 2 to 8 years. The correlation between the electrical parameters (voltage, impedance, and current) and the clinical outcome was studied. An analysis of covariance was performed to identify factors predictive of the magnitude of improvement. The most influential factors according to the model are as follows: the preoperative BFMDRS score (P < 0.0001); age at surgery (P < 0.0001); the right GPi volume (P = 0.002); the left stimulated GPi volume (P = 0.005). No significant correlation was found between the electrical parameters used and the mean motor scores in steady state. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society