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Neurochemical biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of movement disorders

Authors

  • Brit Mollenhauer MD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Paracelsus-Elena Klinik, Kassel, Germany
    2. Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
    • Paracelsus-Elena Klinik, Kassel, Klinikstrasse 16, 34128 Kassel, Germany
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  • Claudia Trenkwalder MD

    1. Paracelsus-Elena Klinik, Kassel, Germany
    2. Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
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  • Potential conflict of interest: CT received honorary for consultancy from Boehringer Ingelheim, UCB, Novartis, Orion Pharma, Solvay and lecture honoraria from Boehringer Ingelheim, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, UCB Schwarz Pharma, Pfizer, Hoffmann-La-Roche. BM received travel costs from Boehringer Ingelheim, Innogenetics and Novartis.

Abstract

In recent years, the neurochemical analysis of neuronal proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has become increasingly accepted for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementia diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. CSF surrounds the central nervous system, and in the composition of CSF proteins one finds brain-specific proteins that are prioritized from blood-derived proteins. Levels of specific CSF proteins could be very promising biomarkers for central nervous system diseases. We need the development of more easily accessible biomarkers, in the blood. In neurodegenerative diseases with and without dementia, studies on CSF and blood proteins have investigated the usefulness of biomarkers in differential diagnosis. The clinical diagnoses of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration still rely mainly on clinical symptoms as defined by international classification criteria. In this article, we review CSF biomarkers in these movement disorders and discuss recent published reports on the neurochemical intra vitam diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders (including recent CSF α-synuclein findings). © 2009 Movement Disorder Society

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