Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease

Authors

  • Dag Aarsland MD, PhD,,

    Corresponding author
    1. The Norwegian Centre for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway
    2. Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    3. Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, England
    • The Norwegian Centre for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, PO Box 8100, N-4068 Stavanger, Norway
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  • Laura Marsh MD,

    1. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    2. Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    3. Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease Research Center of Excellence at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
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  • Anette Schrag MD, PhD

    1. Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University College, London, England
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Abstract

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest stages, and have important consequences for quality of life and daily functioning, are associated with increased carer burden and increased risk for nursing home admission. In addition to cognitive impairment, a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported. In this article, the epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD are discussed: depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, and psychotic symptoms. Although much is known regarding the prevalence and course of these symptoms, the empirical evidence for how to manage these symptoms is limited at best. There is thus an urgent need for systematic studies for the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of these symptoms. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society

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