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Basal ganglia physiology and deep brain stimulation

Authors

  • Andres M. Lozano FRCSC, MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    2. Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street WW 4-447, Toronto, ON M5T2S8, Canada
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  • Brian J. Snyder MD,

    1. Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Clement Hamani MD, PhD,

    1. Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, UHN, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    2. Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • William D. Hutchison PhD,

    1. Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    2. Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Jonathan O. Dostrovsky PhD

    1. Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    2. Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Potential conflict of interest: None reported.

Abstract

Despite improvements in anatomic imaging of the basal ganglia, microelectrode recording is still an invaluable tool in locating appropriate targets for neurosurgical intervention. These recording also provide an unparalleled opportunity to study the pathophysiological aspects of diseases. This article reviews the principles of microelectrode recording in functional neurosurgery and discusses the pathologic neurophysiologic findings commonly encountered. It also highlights some of the potential mechanisms of action of both dopaminergic drugs and deep brain stimulation. In addition we review the recent work on pedunculopontine nucleus neurophysiology and trials of deep brain stimulation in that region for gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society

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