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Photophobia in essential blepharospasm—A positron emission tomographic study

Authors

  • Hirofumi Emoto MD,

    1. Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
    2. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yukihisa Suzuki,

    1. Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
    2. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Masato Wakakura,

    1. Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Chiharu Horie,

    1. Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
    2. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Motohiro Kiyosawa,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Manabu Mochizuki,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Keiichi Kawasaki,

    1. Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Keiichi Oda,

    1. Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Kiichi Ishiwata,

    1. Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Kenji Ishii

    Corresponding author
    1. Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
    • Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022, Japan
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  • Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.

  • Presented in part at the 10th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, 2006, Kyoto, Japan, and the 16th International Neuro-Ophthalmology Society Meeting, 2006, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

To localize regional alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism in essential blepharospasm (EB) patients with photophobia. We have studied 22 EB patients by performing positron emission tomography and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose analysis. The patients were classified into two subgroups, namely, EB with photophobia (P group) and EB without photophobia (NP group), and compared with a healthy control group (n = 44). There were no significant differences between the two patient groups with respect to the severity of motor symptoms or the duration for which the condition persisted. The FDG-PET images were analyzed using the statistical parametric mapping software. As compared to the control group, the P group exhibited significant hypermetabolism in the thalamus (P = 0.002), while the NP group exhibited significant hypometabolism in the dorsal midbrain, especially, in the superior colliculus (P = 0.005). The P group exhibited significant hypermetabolism in the thalamus and the dorsal midbrain as compared to the NP group (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that photophobia in EB patients may be associated with abnormal hyperactivity in the thalamus. Either hyperactivity of the thalamus or hypoactivity of the superior colliculus, or both may be associated with excessive blinking in these patients. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society

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