A case-control study of Parkinson's disease and tobacco use: Gene-tobacco interactions

Authors

  • Giuseppe De Palma,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine, Section of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene, University of Brescia, Italy
    • Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine, Section of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili, 1–25123 Brescia, Italy
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  • Finlay D. Dick,

    1. Population Health Section, Division of Applied Health Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
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  • Stefano Calzetti,

    1. Department of Neuroscience, Neurology Unit, University Hospital of Parma, Italy
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  • Neil W. Scott,

    1. Population Health Section, Division of Applied Health Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
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  • Gordon J. Prescott,

    1. Population Health Section, Division of Applied Health Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
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  • Aileen Osborne,

    1. Musculoskeletal and Genetics Section, Division of Applied Medicine, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
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  • Neva Haites,

    1. Musculoskeletal and Genetics Section, Division of Applied Medicine, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
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  • Paola Mozzoni,

    1. Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Italy
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  • Anna Negrotti,

    1. Department of Neuroscience, Neurology Unit, University Hospital of Parma, Italy
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  • Augusto Scaglioni,

    1. Neurology Unit, Local Health Board (AUSL), Parma, Italy
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  • Antonio Mutti,

    1. Musculoskeletal and Genetics Section, Division of Applied Medicine, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
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  • On Behalf of the Geoparkinson Study Group


  • Potential conflict of interest: None to declare.

Abstract

A case-control study of genetic, environmental, and occupational risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) was carried out in five European countries (Italy, Malta, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden) to explore the possible contribution of interactions among host and environmental factors in sporadic PD. Whereas smoking habits confirmed its negative association with PD, a possible modulatory role of genetic polymorphisms was investigated to obtain further mechanistic insights. We recruited 767 cases of PD and 1989 age-matched and gender-matched controls. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including the history of smoking habits. The polymorphisms of genes involved either in metabolism of compounds contained in tobacco smoke (CYP2D6, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, SOD2, EPHX and NAT2) or in dopaminergic neurotransmission (MAOA, MAOB, DAT1 and DRD2) were characterized by PCR based methods on genomic DNA. We found evidence of statistically significant gene-tobacco interaction for GSTM1, NAT2, and GSTP1, the negative association between tobacco smoking and PD being significantly enhanced in subjects expressing GSTM1-1 activity, in NAT2 fast acetylators, and in those with the GSTP1*B*C haplotype. Owing to the retrospective design of the study, these results require confirmation. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society

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