Familial aggregation of Parkinson's disease in a multiethnic community-based case-control study


  • Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.


To assess the familial aggregation of Parkinson's disease (PD), we compared the cumulative incidence of PD among first-degree relatives of PD cases and controls. We identified newly diagnosed patients with PD (n = 573) during 1994 to 1995 within Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California and recruited 496 cases (87%) for the case-control study. Of 720 eligible controls matched by birth year and sex to cases, 541 (75%) agreed to participate. Information on family history of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases was obtained by in-person structured interview. We used the reconstructed cohort approach that provides a better estimate of the risk. The cumulative incidence of PD was significantly higher among relatives of PD patients compared with relatives of controls (2.0 vs. 0.7%; relative risk (RR) = 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9–5.9; P = 0.0001). The degree of familial aggregation was higher among first-degree relatives of Hispanic PD cases compared with Hispanic controls (3.7% vs. 0.4%; RR = 8.5, 95% CI 1.0–68.9) than it was among non-Hispanic Caucasian cases and controls (2.0% vs. 0.8%; RR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–5.1; P = 0.02). The familial aggregation of PD was stronger among the siblings of PD cases (RR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.8–16.0) than among parents (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–5.2). The incidence and familial aggregation of PD is highest among Hispanics, warranting further studies of genetic and environmental risk factors in the Hispanic population. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society