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Keywords:

  • transcranial magnetic stimulation;
  • electroencephalogram;
  • electromyogram;
  • Parkinson's disease;
  • dystonia

Abstract

Over the last 25 years, clinical neurophysiology has made many advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and even treatment of different movement disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been the biggest technical advance. Progress in pathophysiology includes improved knowledge about bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease, loss of inhibition and increased plasticity in dystonia, abnormal startle in hyperekplexia, and various features of psychogenic movement disorders that can aid diagnosis. Studies have been done looking at the use of noninvasive brain stimulation for therapy, but effects are generally small. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society