Milestones in clinical neurophysiology


  • Funding agencies: Dr. Hallett's work is supported by the Intramural Program of NINDS, NIH.

    Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

    Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.


Over the last 25 years, clinical neurophysiology has made many advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and even treatment of different movement disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been the biggest technical advance. Progress in pathophysiology includes improved knowledge about bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease, loss of inhibition and increased plasticity in dystonia, abnormal startle in hyperekplexia, and various features of psychogenic movement disorders that can aid diagnosis. Studies have been done looking at the use of noninvasive brain stimulation for therapy, but effects are generally small. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society