Leonie Enders and June Spector contributed equally to this article.
Musician's dystonia and comorbid anxiety: Two sides of one coin?†
Article first published online: 2 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society
Volume 26, Issue 3, pages 539–542, 15 February 2011
How to Cite
Enders, L., Spector, J. T., Altenmüller, E., Schmidt, A., Klein, C. and Jabusch, H.-C. (2011), Musician's dystonia and comorbid anxiety: Two sides of one coin?. Mov. Disord., 26: 539–542. doi: 10.1002/mds.23607
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report. Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
- Issue published online: 31 MAR 2011
- Article first published online: 2 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 NOV 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 2 NOV 2010
- Manuscript Received: 23 AUG 2010
- State-Trait Anxiety Inventory;
- NEO-Five-Factors Inventory
Psychological abnormalities, including anxiety, have been observed in patients with musician's dystonia (MD). It is unclear if these conditions develop prior to MD or if they are psychoreactive phenomena.
Psychological conditions were studied in 44 professional musicians with MD, 45 healthy musicians, and 44 healthy nonmusicians using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI).
Musicians with MD had significantly higher STAI state and trait anxiety scores than healthy musicians (P = .009 and P = .012, respectively) and nonmusicians (P = .013 and P = .001, respectively) and significantly higher NEO-FFI neuroticism scores than healthy musicians (P = .018) and nonmusicians (P = .001). Duration of dystonia did not correlate with anxiety or neuroticism scores.
Musicians with MD display increased levels of anxiety and neuroticism. The lack of correlation between anxiety and the duration of dystonia suggests that anxiety may not be a psychoreactive phenomenon and is consistent with the hypothesis that anxiety and MD share a common pathophysiological mechanism. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society