Milestones in neuroimaging


  • Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: The authors' work is supported by the Canada Research Chairs program, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research and the Pacific Alzheimer Research Foundation (to A.J.S.), the UK Medical Research Council, UK Parkinson's Disease Society, Michael J. Fox Foundation, European Union Framework Programme (to D.J.B.), National Institutes of Health/NINDS, Parkinson's Disease Foundation, American Parkinson Disease Foundation, Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation, and CHDI/High Q Foundation (to D.E.).

  • Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.


In the last 25 years there have been enormous advances in brain imaging. In addition to utility in diagnosis, these have led to novel insights into the pathogenesis of basal ganglia disease and the role of dopamine and the basal ganglia in normal health. The authors review highlights of this work, with a focus on advances in Parkinson's disease, the dystonias, Huntington's disease, and the role of dopamine in cognition and reward signaling. Emerging areas for future development include studies of functional connectivity, the analysis of default mode networks, studies of novel neurochemical pathways, methods to study disease pathogenesis, and the application of imaging techniques to investigate animal models of disease. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society