Funding agencies: This work was supported by the LABCOATS program at the University of Colorado, Denver. Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
Nonmotor manifestations of dystonia: A systematic review†
Article first published online: 11 APR 2011
Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society
Volume 26, Issue 7, pages 1206–1217, June 2011
How to Cite
Kuyper, D. J., Parra, V., Aerts, S., Okun, M. S. and Kluger, B. M. (2011), Nonmotor manifestations of dystonia: A systematic review. Mov. Disord., 26: 1206–1217. doi: 10.1002/mds.23709
Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
- Issue published online: 20 JUN 2011
- Article first published online: 11 APR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 FEB 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 7 FEB 2011
- Manuscript Received: 3 JUN 2010
Nonmotor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important determinants of quality of life and disability in a wide range of movement disorders. There is a limited body of research suggesting that many of these symptoms are also commonly associated with primary and other genetic forms of dystonia. However, the significance, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of these symptoms remain poorly described. The following is a review of the literature that focuses primarily on the association of these types of dystonia with psychiatric disorders, cognition, sleep, pain, and autonomic symptoms. We will also discuss potential mechanisms and approaches to treatment for nonmotor features of dystonia. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society