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Nonmotor manifestations of dystonia: A systematic review


  • Funding agencies: This work was supported by the LABCOATS program at the University of Colorado, Denver. Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

    Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.


Nonmotor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important determinants of quality of life and disability in a wide range of movement disorders. There is a limited body of research suggesting that many of these symptoms are also commonly associated with primary and other genetic forms of dystonia. However, the significance, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of these symptoms remain poorly described. The following is a review of the literature that focuses primarily on the association of these types of dystonia with psychiatric disorders, cognition, sleep, pain, and autonomic symptoms. We will also discuss potential mechanisms and approaches to treatment for nonmotor features of dystonia. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society