Paroxysmal dyskinesias

Authors

  • Kailash P. Bhatia FRCP

    Corresponding author
    1. Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    • Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
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  • Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

  • Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.

Abstract

Paroxysmal movement disorders are a relatively rare and heterogenous group of conditions manifesting as episodic dyskinesia lasting a brief duration. Three forms are clearly recognized, namely, paroxysmal kinesigenic (PKD), nonkinisegenic (PNKD), and exercise induced (PED). There have been major advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms and the genetics of these disorders, leading to better clinical definitions based on genotype–phenotype correlations in the familial idiopathic forms. PKD is genetically heterogenous, but there is linkage to chromosome 16 in a number of families. PNKD is due to mutations of the MR-1 gene. PED is genetically heterogenous, but a number of familial and sporadic cases may be due to GLUT-1 gene mutations. The GLUT1 gene–related form of PED may respond to a ketogenic diet. Potassium and calcium channel mutations underlie the 2 main forms of episodic ataxia (EA1 and EA2), whereas benign torticollis of infancy may also be a calcium channel disorder. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society

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