Arm tremor in cervical dystonia—Is it a manifestation of dystonia or essential tremor?§


  • Funding agencies: This work was supported by the Volkswagenstiftung and the Hermann & Lilly Schilling Foundation.

  • Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Christine Klein is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, a grant from Volkswagen, and a career development award from the Hermann and Lilly Schilling foundation. Alexander Münchau is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant number MU1692/2-1).

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    Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.


The classification of arm tremor in cervical dystonia is a controversial issue. There have been many, at times passionate disputes in the movement disorder community about whether it should be classified as a manifestation of dystonia or essential tremor associated with dystonia. There are arguments in favor of both views. Settling the issue might be relevant to the understanding of the etiological, presumably genetic, background because phenomenological grouping is the starting point for genetic analyses. From this point of view, we outline this tremor debate and add some new clinical data. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society