Executive functions in Parkinson's disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis§


  • Funding agencies: A.K. was supported by the School of Psychology, Bangor University and by a Bangor University Anniversary PhD Bursary.

  • Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

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    Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.


Impairment of executive function (EF) is commonly reported as a feature of PD. However, the exact pattern of executive impairment remains unclear. Also, there is an ongoing discussion surrounding the definition and conceptualization of EF, which might affect the clarity of research evidence on cognition in PD. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the pattern of executive impairment in early-stage PD emerging from the research literature and to identify critical issues for improving consistency in this field. The PsychInfo, MEDLINE, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the term “Parkinson's disease” combined with each of 14 cognitive abilities defined as representing aspects of EF. The review was limited to studies that investigated EF as the central variable in early-stage, nondemented PD patients. The review identified 33 studies of EF that were operationalized in terms of 30 abilities tested by 60 measures and variously interpreted. Many measures were used only once, so only a small part of the available research evidence could be synthesized in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was undertaken using data from five commonly used tests of EF drawn from 18 studies. This revealed consistent evidence for cognitive difficulties across all five EF tests. Research on EF in PD is characterized by a considerable lack of clarity with regard to measure selection and interpretation. The findings support the view that EF impairments are evident in PD. However, the clinical significance of the cognitive abnormalities reported has yet to be clarified. 2011 Movement Disorder Society