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Reproductive factors and Parkinson's disease: A multicenter case–control study


  • Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

  • Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.



The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible association between endogenous and exogenous estrogens and Parkinson's disease (PD).


The FRAGAMP study is a large Italian multicenter case–control study. PD was diagnosed according to Gelb's criteria. A standardized questionnaire was administered to record demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data. Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariate analysis (logistic regression).


Two hundred PD women (mean age, 68.0 ± 9.5 years) and 299 control women (mean age, 61.8 ± 9.9 years) were enrolled in the study. Age at menarche, age at menopause, fertile life duration, cumulative duration of pregnancies, hormone replacement therapy, and surgical menopause were not significantly associated with PD. Multivariate analysis showed a significant positive association between use of oral contraceptives and PD, with an adjusted OR of 3.27 (95% CI, 1.24–8.59; P = .01).


Our data suggest that oral contraceptives could increase the risk of PD. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society