Funding agencies: This research was supported by the Jikei University Research Fund and High Technology Research Center Project for Private University.
Article first published online: 31 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society
Volume 27, Issue 2, pages 264–271, February 2012
How to Cite
Suzuki, M., Yoshioka, M., Hashimoto, M., Murakami, M., Kawasaki, K., Noya, M., Takahashi, D. and Urashima, M. (2012), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and severity of Parkinson's disease. Mov. Disord., 27: 264–271. doi: 10.1002/mds.24016
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
- Issue published online: 9 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 31 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 26 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 17 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Received: 10 JUN 2011
- neurological disease;
- single nucleotide polymorphisms;
- vitamin D receptor;
- vitamin D binding protein
We aimed to examine associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, vitamin D binding protein gene polymorphisms, and the severity of Parkinson's disease. In 137 patients, the severity of Parkinson's disease was evaluated using Hoehn & Yahr stage and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Stage by neurologists and compared with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, ie, FokI (rs10735810), BsmI (rs1544410), Cdx2 (rs11568820), ApaI (rs7976091), and TaqI (rs731236), and vitamin D binding protein gene polymorphisms GC1 (rs7041)/GC2 (rs4588) in a cross-sectional study. Mean ± standard deviation levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 21.1 ± 9.0 ng/mL. Levels were deficient (<20 ng/mL) in 49% of patients. In contrast, 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were considered normal in all patients. Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly associated with milder Parkinson's disease evaluated by Hoehn & Yahr stage (P = .002) and total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Stage (P = .004) even after multivariate adjustment for 8 covariates, including disease duration. However, significant associations were not observed in 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Under multivariate analysis with 25-hydroxyvitamin D as well as other 8 covariates including disease duration, carriers of vitamin D receptor FokICC genotype had a milder form of Parkinson's disease: odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.66, P = 0.002. These results suggest that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the vitamin D receptor FokICC genotype may be independently associated with milder forms of Parkinson's disease. However, significant associations were not observed in 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society