Funding agencies: This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG (grant numbers SCH592/1-2 [to A.S.] and MU1692/2-1 [to A.M.]).
Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012
Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society
Volume 27, Issue 4, pages 562–565, April 2012
How to Cite
Finis, J., Moczydlowski, A., Pollok, B., Biermann-Ruben, K., Thomalla, G., Heil, M., Krause, H., Jonas, M., Schnitzler, A. and Münchau, A. (2012), Echoes from childhood—imitation in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Mov. Disord., 27: 562–565. doi: 10.1002/mds.24913
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
- Issue published online: 4 APR 2012
- Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 26 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 18 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Received: 1 JUL 2011
- Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG. Grant Numbers: SCH592/1-2, MU1692/2-1
- Gilles de la Tourette syndrome;
- mirror neuron system;
Tourette syndrome patients are reported to show automatic imitation (echopraxia), but this has not yet been proven experimentally.
Video clips showing either tics of other Tourette patients or spontaneous movements of healthy subjects were presented to Tourette patients and healthy subjects. Participants' responses were assessed using blinded review of video recordings by 2 independent raters and related to stimuli presented.
Both raters detected more echoes in patients. In a permutation analysis, no healthy subject had echoes above chance level. In contrast, 6 and 5 patients were classified as echoers according to rater 1 and rater 2, respectively, in 1 analysis, and 9 patients were so classified in a second analysis (according to rater 2 only). Concordance between raters was high. Patients echoed both following stimuli showing tics and following stimuli showing spontaneous movements. Most echoes were part of patients' individual tic repertoire.
Echopraxia is a hallmark of Tourette syndrome. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society