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Keywords:

  • neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA);
  • dystonia;
  • peripheral neuropathy;
  • C19orf12

Abstract

Background:

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is clinically and genetically heterogeneous because of mutations in at least 7 nuclear genes.

Methods:

We performed homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in 2 brothers with brain iron accumulation from a consanguineous family.

Results:

We identified a homozygous missense mutation in both brothers in the very recently identified chromosome 19 open-reading frame 12 gene. The disease presented before age 10 with slowly progressive tremor, dystonia, and spasticity. Additional features were optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and learning difficulties. A raised serum creatine kinase indicated neuromuscular involvement, and compensatory mitochondrial proliferation implicated mitochondrial dysfunction as a pathological mechanism.

Conclusions:

Further studies are needed to explore the function of the chromosome 19 open-reading frame 12 gene, and extended genetic analysis on larger patient cohorts will provide more information about the presentation and frequency of this disease. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society