Caffeine and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large cohort of men and women§

Authors

  • Natalia Palacios ScD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    • Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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  • Xiang Gao MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    2. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
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  • Marjorie L. McCullough ScD,

    1. Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
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  • Michael A. Schwarzschild MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
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  • Roma Shah MS,

    1. Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
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  • Susan Gapstur PhD,

    1. Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
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  • Alberto Ascherio MD, DrPH

    1. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    2. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    3. Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
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  • Funding agencies: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant nos.: K01 ES019183-01 and R01 NS061858).

  • Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

  • §

    Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.

Abstract

Caffeine consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The association is strong and consistent in men, but uncertain in women, possibly because of an interaction with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We sought to confirm these findings using data on PD incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS II–Nutrition), a large, prospective study of men and women. We conducted a prospective study of caffeine intake and risk of PD within the CPS II Nutrition Cohort. Intakes of coffee and other sources of caffeine were assessed at baseline. Incident cases of PD (n = 317; 197 men and 120 women) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol intake, high caffeine consumption was associated with a reduced risk of PD. The RR comparing the 5th to the 1st quintile of caffeine intake was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26, 0.71; P trend = <0.002) in men, and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.34, 1.09; P trend = 0.05) in women. Among women, this association was stronger among never users of HRT (RR = 0.32) than among ever users (RR = 0.81; P interaction = 0.15). Consumption of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with PD risk. Findings from this large, prospective study of men and women are consistent with a protective effect of caffeine intake on PD incidence, with an attenuating influence of HRT in women. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society

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