Funding agencies: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant nos.: K01 ES019183-01 and R01 NS061858).
Article first published online: 27 AUG 2012
Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society
Volume 27, Issue 10, pages 1276–1282, 1 September 2012
How to Cite
Palacios, N., Gao, X., McCullough, M. L., Schwarzschild, M. A., Shah, R., Gapstur, S. and Ascherio, A. (2012), Caffeine and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large cohort of men and women. Mov. Disord., 27: 1276–1282. doi: 10.1002/mds.25076
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
- Issue published online: 13 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 27 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 11 APR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 7 NOV 2011
Caffeine consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The association is strong and consistent in men, but uncertain in women, possibly because of an interaction with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We sought to confirm these findings using data on PD incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS II–Nutrition), a large, prospective study of men and women. We conducted a prospective study of caffeine intake and risk of PD within the CPS II Nutrition Cohort. Intakes of coffee and other sources of caffeine were assessed at baseline. Incident cases of PD (n = 317; 197 men and 120 women) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol intake, high caffeine consumption was associated with a reduced risk of PD. The RR comparing the 5th to the 1st quintile of caffeine intake was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26, 0.71; P trend = <0.002) in men, and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.34, 1.09; P trend = 0.05) in women. Among women, this association was stronger among never users of HRT (RR = 0.32) than among ever users (RR = 0.81; P interaction = 0.15). Consumption of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with PD risk. Findings from this large, prospective study of men and women are consistent with a protective effect of caffeine intake on PD incidence, with an attenuating influence of HRT in women. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society