• head shaking;
  • familial Parkinson's disease;
  • alpha-synuclein gene duplication;
  • leucine-rich repeat kinase 2


PARK4 is a candidate locus for familial Parkinson's disease (PD), combined with multiplication of the α-synuclein gene (SNCA). The eventual phenotype is dependent on the copy number of SNCA. Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are also causative of parkinsonism. This report describes a man who presented at our hospital complaining of a stagger after running and difficulty in handling the mouse of a personal computer, having suffered tremors since his twenties. Nine months after treatment and discharge, he developed titubation and began to drag his right foot.


We examined the patient's family pedigree for SNCA dosage, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We also screened this pedigree for mutations in parkin and LRRK2, using gene-sequencing techniques.


We identified the proband, his sister, and his paternal uncle as carrying a duplication of SNCA. In addition, we found that the proband and his mother carried the G2385R variant of the LRRK2, a strong risk factor for PD in Asians and the rare V1450I variant, although only the proband showed symptoms of parkinsonism. No mutations were found in parkin.


The combination of SNCA gene duplication and LRRK2 G2385R variant may explain the early onset of disease in this patient. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society