Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
The spectrum of movement disorders in children with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013
Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society
Volume 28, Issue 4, pages 543–547, April 2013
How to Cite
Baizabal-Carvallo, J. F., Stocco, A., Muscal, E. and Jankovic, J. (2013), The spectrum of movement disorders in children with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Mov. Disord., 28: 543–547. doi: 10.1002/mds.25354
Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
- Issue published online: 8 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 22 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Received: 8 AUG 2012
- anti-NMDAR encephalitis;
Movement disorders are frequent but difficult to characterize in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.
The phenomenology of movement disorders was characterized after a detailed examination of children with anti-NMDAR-encephalitis.
We studied 9 children (5 females), ages 3–14 years, with confirmed anti-NMDAR-encephalitis. All patients presented with at least 1 movement disorder, including chorea (n=4), stereotypic movements (n=4), ataxia (n=3), limb dystonia (n=2), limb myorhythmia (n=2), oromandibular dystonia (n=2), facial myorhythmia, blepharospasm, opisthotonus, athetosis, and tremor (n=1, each). More than a single movement disorder was observed in 6 of these patients. Resolution of the abnormal movements was observed in all patients with immunotherapy; 1 patient improved with tetrabenazine.
A wide variety of movement disorders, often in combination, can be observed in children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Patients commonly present with more than a single movement disorder. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society