Familial psychogenic movement disorders
Funding agencies: This work was undertaken at University ColUniversity College London, which received a pro/University College London, which received a proportion of funding from the Department of Health's National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centers funding scheme.
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence to: Prof. K. P. Bhatia, Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG United Kingdom; firstname.lastname@example.org
Psychogenic (or functional) movement disorders (PMDs) are considered sporadic. Despite the growing literature describing the clinical features and the natural history of sporadic cases with PMDs, their occurrence in familial clusters is not reported.
We identified 10 patients from 5 families affected by PMDs. In this report, we describe the clinical characteristics along with videos and long-term follow-up of these patients.
Clinical clues from the history and signs suggesting a functional origin of the symptoms in these patients with familial PMD were similar to those identified in sporadic cases. The phenomenology of the PMD was similar in the affected members of the same family.
We wish to highlight that a positive family history does not necessarily imply an organic disorder. When a positive family history for a condition is reported by a patient with PMD, examination of these further affected members may be needed and may identify further family members suffering from PMDs. A positive family history of PMDs may be an additional risk factor for developing PMDs. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society