Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Dr. Jankovic has received research grants or served as a consultant for Allergan, Inc., Ipsen Limited, and Merz Pharmaceuticals.
Medical treatment of dystonia
Article first published online: 25 JUL 2013
© 2013 Movement Disorder Society
Special Issue: Advances in Dystonia
Volume 28, Issue 7, pages 1001–1012, 15 June 2013
How to Cite
Jankovic, J. (2013), Medical treatment of dystonia. Mov. Disord., 28: 1001–1012. doi: 10.1002/mds.25552
Full financial disclosures may be found in the Acknowledgments section online.
- Issue published online: 25 JUL 2013
- Article first published online: 25 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 10 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 3 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 1 APR 2013
- botulinum toxin;
Medications such as anticholinergic drugs, dopamine modulators, baclofen, muscle relaxants, and other pharmacologic agents have been used for a long time to treat dystonia, but the introduction of botulinum toxin and deep brain stimulation clearly revolutionized the symptomatic treatment of this neurological movement disorder. Therapy of dystonia can be divided into the following categories: (1) physical, supportive, and ancillary therapy; (2) pharmacologic treatment; (3) chemodenervation with botulinum toxin; and (4) peripheral and central surgery (deep brain stimulation). Except in some cases of secondary dystonia, pathogenesis-targeted or disease-modifying therapy is currently not available. This review focuses on evidence-based medical treatment of dystonia, highlighting recent advances, with emphasis on individualized approach. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society