Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
Venturing into the no-man's land of the retina in Parkinson's disease
Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013
Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society
Volume 29, Issue 1, pages 15–22, January 2014
How to Cite
Bodis-Wollner, I., Miri, S. and Glazman, S. (2014), Venturing into the no-man's land of the retina in Parkinson's disease. Mov. Disord., 29: 15–22. doi: 10.1002/mds.25741
Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
Funding agencies: This study was supported by the Parkinson Study Group and the Michael J. Fox Foundation.
- Issue published online: 23 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 7 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 27 AUG 2013
- Parkinson's disease;
- optical coherence tomography;
- retinal nerve fiber layer
The development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has led to increasing interest in the retina in Parkinson's disease (PD). The retina is a multilayered tissue: looking into the eye from the outside, these layers comprise the nerve fiber layer (NFL); the ganglion cell layer (GCL); the inner plexiform layer (IPL), which contains the interconnecting plexus, including tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) fibers of amacrine cells; the inner nuclear layer; and several outer retinal layers. Commercial spectral-domain OCT has a specific program for detecting peripapillary NFL defects and a different macular program for diabetic retinopathy. Specific programs for PD are not commercially available. Taking all studies together, it seems that macular programs have a higher diagnostic yield than NFL programs, but the numbers of studies and examined patients are relatively small. It is not certain that all retinal thinning in PD is due to dopaminergic neuronal loss. When applying OCT, the where (region of interest) and the what of the focus of automated programs must be considered. With these caveats, one could take advantage of the power of OCT for looking in-depth into the terra incognita of individual retinal layers at the fovea and perhaps at other appropriate retinal locations. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society