Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
What can biomarkers tell us about cognition in Parkinson's disease?
Article first published online: 22 APR 2014
© 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
Special Issue: Cognition and Movement Disorders
Volume 29, Issue 5, pages 622–633, 15 April 2014
How to Cite
Mollenhauer, B., Rochester, L., Chen-Plotkin, A. and Brooks, D. (2014), What can biomarkers tell us about cognition in Parkinson's disease?. Mov. Disord., 29: 622–633. doi: 10.1002/mds.25846
Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.
- Issue published online: 22 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 22 APR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 23 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 17 DEC 2013
- Parkinson's disease;
- cerebrospinal fluid;
Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), even in the early motor stage, and this non-motor feature impacts quality of life and prognosis tremendously. In this article, we discuss marker candidates for cognitive decline in PD from different angles, including functional and structural imaging techniques, biological fluid markers in cerebrospinal fluid, and blood genetic predictors, as well as gait as a surrogate marker of cognitive decline. Specifically, imaging-based markers of cognitive impairment in PD include cortical atrophy, reduced cortical metabolism, loss of cortical cholinergic and frontal dopaminergic function, as well as an increased cortical amyloid load. Reduced β-amyloid(1-42) in cerebrospinal fluid and lower plasma levels of epidermal growth factor are predictors for cognitive decline in PD. In addition, genetic variation in the apolipoprotein E (APOE), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) genes may confer risk for cognitive impairment in PD; and gait disturbance may also indicate an increased risk for dementia. Other marker candidates have been proposed and are discussed. All of the current studies are hampered by gaps in our knowledge about the molecular causes of cognitive decline, which will have to be considered in future biomarker studies. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society