Get access

Individual and joint prevalence of three nonmotor symptoms of PD in the US general population


  • Funding agencies: This study was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

  • Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.

  • Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in the online version of this article.



Some nonmotor symptoms may precede the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by years.


We examined the individual and joint prevalence of depression, daytime sleepiness, and infrequent bowel movement among 10,477 participants of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2008.


For all symptoms, the prevalence was higher in women than in men. Importantly, few participants had two or more symptoms: 1.3% at ages 20 to 29, 1.0% at 30 to 39, 1.2% at 40 to 49, 3.5% at 50 to 59, 1.7% at 60 to 69, 1.1% at 70 to 79, and 1.2% at ages 80 years or older in men; the corresponding prevalence in women was 3.1%, 5.2%, 5.7%, 4.1%, 3.1%, 2.3%, and 1.2%, respectively. In both men and women, depression was correlated with infrequent bowel movement and daytime sleepiness, but the latter two were mutually independent.


The presence of multiple nonmotor symptoms was uncommon in the general population and the prevalence was higher in women than in men. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society

Get access to the full text of this article