The effect of stimulation of cerebral dopamine D-1 receptors by CY 208-243 on motor disability was tested in MPTP-treated parkinsonian marmosets and patients with Parkinson's disease. CY 208-243 (0.5–1.25 mg/kg s.c.) produced a dose-related reversal of akinesia and rigidity in the marmosets, lasting some 2 h. Single morning doses of CY 208-243 (5–40 mg) were compared with the usual morning dose of levodopa in eight patients with Parkinson's disease on long-term levodopa therapy who had developed motor fluctuations from immobility with akinesia and rigidity (off) to mobility often with dyskinesias (on). CY 208-243 alone was capable of switching such patients from off to on; five of the eight patients responded to the highest dose (40 mg), sometimes with dyskinesias. The response to CY 208-243 was comparable to that produced by levodopa in these cases. Drugs designed to stimulate both dopamine D1 D2 receptors in the brain may improve the therapy of Parkinson's disease.