Unusual focal dyskinesias: The ears, the shoulders, the back, and the abdomen

Authors

  • J. N. Caviness,

    1. Medical Research Council, Human Movement and Balance Unit and University Department of Clinical Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, England
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  • A. Gabellini,

    1. Medical Research Council, Human Movement and Balance Unit and University Department of Clinical Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, England
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  • C. S. Kneebone,

    1. Department of Neurology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia
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  • P. D. Thompson,

    1. Medical Research Council, Human Movement and Balance Unit and University Department of Clinical Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, England
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  • A. J. Lees,

    1. Medical Research Council, Human Movement and Balance Unit and University Department of Clinical Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, England
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  • Prof. C. D. Marsden

    Corresponding author
    1. Medical Research Council, Human Movement and Balance Unit and University Department of Clinical Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, England
    • University Department of Clinical Neurology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, England
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Abstract

Fourteen patients with focal or segmental involuntary movements affecting the ears, back, shoulder girdle, and upper extremity, as well as the abdomen and pelvic girdle, are presented. The unusual locations and appearance of these dyskinesias distinguishes them from recognized movement disorder syndromes. It is argued that the slow, sinuous, and semirhythmic character of the movements and the variable long-duration bursts of motor unit activity responsible for them most closely fit into the spectrum of dystonia. A history of pain in the affected region and/or peripheral trauma in some cases also suggests that peripheral factors may play a role in their pathogenesis.

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