Oral administration of levodopa (L-dopa) (2.5–25.0 mg/kg) plus carbidopa (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) to MPTP-treated common marmosets produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity and a corresponding decrease in motor disability. Pretreatment with the peripheral COMT inhibitor entacapone (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) enhanced the intensity and duration of the increase in locomotor activity and the reversal of motor disability produced by a threshold dose of L-dopa (2.5 mg/kg p.o.) plus carbidopa. By contrast, entacapone pretreatment did not potentiate the increased locomotor activity or reversal of motor disability produced by a near-maximal dose of L-dopa (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) plus carbidopa. The effects of entacapone (5.0–25.0 mg/kg p.o.) were dose related, with doses of >12.5 mg/kg tending to produce less potentiation of L-dopa's effects compared to lower doses. Pretreatment with entacapone (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) without carbidopa caused a short-lasting enhancement of L-dopa's (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) action, whereas pretreatment with carbidopa (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) alone had a more dramatic effect. However, pretreatment with both carbidopa and entacapone produced the greatest overall motor response. In conclusion, entacapone enhances the motor response produced by a low threshold dose of L-dopa plus carbidopa. However, optimization of both the dose of L-dopa and entacapone appears necessary to obtain the maximal therapeutic response.