• X-linked;
  • Dystonia;
  • Deafness;
  • Mosaic pattern of gliosis


We report a family with early-onset deafness and progressive dystonia exclusively involving males over two successive generations. There is also evidence of cognitive impairment and corticospinal tract involvement. The pedigree suggests an X-linked inheritance. A similar family was originally described by Scribanu and Kennedy. Tranebjaerg et al. have recently reported two other families with linkage to Xq22 and also proposed a novel X-linked candidate gene. These findings support the existence of a distinct neurodegenerative syndrome principally characterized by early-onset deafness and progressive dystonia. Neuropathology of one case showed a mosaic pattern of neuronal loss and gliosis in the caudate and putamen suggesting that this pattern is not restricted to XDP or Lubag.