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Keywords:

  • Tremor;
  • Classification;
  • Clinical assessment

Abstract

This is a proposal of the Movement Disorder Society for a clinical classification of tremors. The classification is based on the distinction between rest, postural, simple kinetic, and intention tremor (tremor during target-directed movements). Additional data from a medical history and the results of a neurologic examination can be combined into one of the following clinical syndromes defined in this statement: enhanced physiologic tremor, classical essential tremor (ET), primary orthostatic tremor, task- and position-specific tremors, dystonic tremor, tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD), cerebellar tremor, Holmes' tremor, palatal tremor, drug-induced and toxic tremor, tremor in peripheral neuropathies, or psychogenic tremor. Conditions such as asterixis, epilepsia partialis continua, clonus, and rhythmic myoclonus can be misinterpreted as tremor. The features distinguishing these conditions from tremor are described. Controversial issues are outlined in a comment section for each item and thus reflect the open questions that at present cannot be answered on a scientific basis. We hope that this statement provides a basis for better communication among clinicians working in the field and stimulates tremor research.