Development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) small-molecule inhibitors for cancer therapy


  • Rongshi Li,

    Corresponding author
    1. High-Throughput Medicinal Chemistry, ChemBridge Research Laboratories, 16981 Via Tazon, Suites K, San Diego, California 92127
    • Senior Vice President, Discovery Chemistry, Pharmaron Inc., 201 E. Jefferson St., Louisville, KY 40202.
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  • Stephan W. Morris

    Corresponding author
    1. Departments of Pathology and Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale St. Memphis, Tennessee 38105
    • Departments of Pathology and Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Thomas Tower—Room 4026, Mail stop #343, 322 North Lauderdale Street, Memphis, TN 38105.
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) involved in the genesis of several human cancers; indeed, ALK was initially identified in constitutively activated and oncogenic fusion forms—the most common being nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK—in a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) known as anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and subsequent studies identified ALK fusions in the human sarcomas called inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs). In addition, two recent reports have suggested that the ALK fusion, TPM4-ALK, may be involved in the genesis of a subset of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. While the cause-effect relationship between ALK fusions and malignancies such as ALCL and IMT is very well established, more circumstantial links implicate the involvement of the full-length, normal ALK receptor in the genesis of additional malignancies including glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, breast cancer, and others; in these instances, ALK is believed to foster tumorigenesis following activation by autocrine and/or paracrine growth loops involving the reported ALK ligands, pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK). There are no currently available ALK small-molecule inhibitors approved for clinical cancer therapy; however, recognition of the variety of malignancies in which ALK may play a causative role has recently begun to prompt developmental efforts in this area. This review provides a succinct summary of normal ALK biology, the confirmed and putative roles of ALK fusions and the full-length ALK receptor in the development of human cancers, and efforts to target ALK using small-molecule kinase inhibitors. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 28, No. 3, 372–412, 2008