Promising tumor-associated antigens for future prostate cancer therapy

Authors

  • Yong Li,

    Corresponding author
    1. Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2217, Australia
    2. Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    • Cancer Care Centre, St. George Hospital, Gray Street, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW 2217, Australia
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  • Paul J. Cozzi,

    1. Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    2. Department of Surgery, St. George Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2217, Australia
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  • Pamela J. Russell

    1. Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    2. Oncology Research Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, 2031 Australia
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Abstract

Prostate cancer (CaP) is one of the most prevalent malignant diseases among men in Western countries. There is currently no cure for metastatic castrate-resistant CaP, and median survival for these patients is about 18 months; the high mortality rate seen is associated with widespread metastases. Progression of CaP from primary to metastatic disease is associated with several molecular and genetic changes that can affect the expression of specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) or receptors on the cell surface. Targeting TAAs is emerging as an area of promise for controlling late-stage and recurrent CaP. Several reviews have summarized the progress made in targeting signaling pathways for CaP but will not be discussed here. We describe some important CaP TAAs. These include prostate stem-cell antigen, prostate-specific membrane antigen, MUC1, epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor and its receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor, and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer. We summarize recent advancements in our understanding of their role in CaP metastasis, as well as potential therapeutic options for targeting CaP TAAs. We also discuss the origin, identification, and characterization of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the potential benefits of targeting prostate CSCs to overcome chemoresistance and CaP recurrence. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 30, No. 1, 67–101, 2010

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