Investigation and prediction of helicopter-triggered lightning over the North Sea
Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012
Copyright © 2012 British Crown Copyright, the Met Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Volume 20, Issue 1, pages 94–106, March 2013
How to Cite
Wilkinson, J. M., Wells, H., Field, P. R. and Agnew, P. (2013), Investigation and prediction of helicopter-triggered lightning over the North Sea. Met. Apps, 20: 94–106. doi: 10.1002/met.1314
- Issue published online: 4 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 20 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Received: 16 DEC 2011
- AAIB. 1997. Report on the accident to Aerospatiale AS332L Super Puma, G-TIGK, in North Sea south west of Brae Alpha Platform on 19 January 1995. Report No 2/1997, AAIB: http://www.aaib.gov.uk/sites/aaib/publications/formal_reports/2_1997__g_tigk.cfm (accessed 1 December 2011).
- AAIB. 2005. Report on the accident to Sikorsky S-76A+, G-BJVX near the Leman 49/26 Foxtrot platform in the North Sea on 16 July 2002. Report No 1/2005. http://www.aaib.gov.uk/publications/formal_reports/1_2005_g_bjvx.cfm (accessed 1 December 2011).
- 2007. Simulation of a supercellular storm using a three-dimensional mesoscale model with an explicit lightning flash scheme. J. Geophys. Res. 112(D06210):DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007484. , .
- 1972. A fundamental study of static electric phenomena (applied to helicopters). Technical Report, Princeton University: Princeton, NJ. , , .
- 2005. Lightning strike to helicopters during winter thunderstorms over North Sea. Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 9: 686–691. , , , , .
- 1994. Diagnostic study of a narrow cold-frontal rainband and severe winds associated with a stratospheric intrusion. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120: 235–257, DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712051602. , .
- 2003. The Lightning Flash, IET Power and Energy Series, Vol. 34. Institution of Electric Engineers: Stevenage. . (ed.)
- 1990. On summary measures of skill in rare event forecasting based on contingency tables. Weather Forecast. 5: 576–585. , , .
- 2005. High percentage of positive lightning along the USA west coast. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32: L09815, DOI: 10.1029/2005GL022782. , .
- 2008. Observing lightning from the ground over large areas of the globe. Proceedings WMO Technical Conference on Instruments and Observing Methods, Vol. 1(16). WMO: St. Petersburg. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/publications/IOM-96_TECO-2008/_PROGRAMME.HTML. , , , , , , , .
- 1999. Assessment of Lightning Threat to North Sea Helicopters: Final Report. Paper 99007. Civil Aviation Authority: London. .
- 1994. Meteorological and electrical aspects of winter thunderclouds. J. Geophys. Res. 99(D5): 10,713–10,721. , .
- 2007. Aircraft triggered lightning caused by winter thunderclouds in the Hokurika Coast, Japan—A case study of a lightning strike to aircraft below the cloud base. SOLA 3: 109–112, DOI: 10.2151/sola. 2007-028. , , .
- 1999. Lightning strikes on helicopters—effects, detection and avoidance. SAE Technical Paper Series 1999–01-2398. .
- 1986. An operational system for the remote location of lightning flashes using a VLF arrival time difference technique. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 3: 630–642. .
- 1953. The growth of ice crystals in a supercooled water cloud. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 79: 104–111. .
- 1982. A model for assessment of weather forecasts. Aust. Met. Mag. 30: 291–303. .
- 1999. Conditional probabilities, relative operating characteristics and relative operating levels. Weather Forecast. 14: 713–725. , .
- 1999. Lightning Strikes to Helicopters Over the North Sea. Paper 99008. Civil Aviation Authority: London. .
- 2003. Lightning: Physics and Effects. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. , .
- 1982. A numerical study of thunderstorm electrification using a three dimensional model incorporating the ice phase. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 108: 779–800. .
- 2003. Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14): 4407, DOI: 10.1029/2002JD002670. , , , , , , , .
- 1998. Electrical structure in thunderstorm convective regions 3. Synthesis. J. Geophys. Res. 103: 14097–14108. , , .
- 2006. Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. Academic Press: Burlington, MA; 264–265. .