Comparison of the effects of inhalation, epidural, spinal, and combined anesthesia techniques on rat cremaster muscle flap microcirculation


  • This study was approved by the Animal Research Committee of the Gulhane Military Academy. All animals used in this study received care in compliance with the guide for care and use of laboratory animals published by the ethics council.

  • All authors included in this manuscript have made substantial contributions in the design of the study, and acquisition of data, and analysis and interpretation of data. All of the authors have made contributions in criticizing the manuscript and approving the submission version. This manuscript does not contain any commercial affiliation as well as consultancy, stock, or equity interests. There is not any violation of patent-licensing arrangements that could be considered a conflict of interest.



This experimental study was designed to investigate and compare the effects of different anesthesia techniques on rat cremaster muscle flap microcirculation.


Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats (130–150 g body weight) were divided into five experimental groups containing ten animals each. Group I, group II, and group III were designated as inhalation, epidural, and spinal anesthesia groups, respectively. Group IV was designated as a combination group for inhalation and epidural anesthesia. Group V was a combination group of inhalation and spinal anesthesia.


Group III and group V showed significant increases in the number of rolling and sticking leucocytes and in RBC volume (peripheral stasis) when compared with group I. Blood flow and velocity significantly increased without peripheral stasis in groups II and IV when compared with group I. Although there was no statistically significant difference in the numbers of rolling, sticking, and transmigrating leucocytes or in functional capillary perfusion, group IV had better flow hemodynamics in the peripheral microcirculation when compared with group I.


The inhalation and epidural anesthesia combination was determined to be the ideal anesthesia technique for improved peripheral microcirculation. Spinal anesthesia, either separately or in combination with inhalation anesthesia, has adverse effects on microcirculation. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010.