Surgical complications are important causes of graft loss in the nonhuman primate kidney transplantation model. We reviewed the incidence and intervention methods in 182 kidney transplantations performed in our lab recently 2 years in Cynomolgus monkeys. There were six renal artery thromboses (3.3%), eight urine leakages (4.4%), and five ureteral stenoses (2.7%). All renal artery thrombosis cases were found within 3 days after surgery. Urine leakage appeared from the 5th to 12th day after surgery and all cases were caused by ureter rupture. Reexploration was performed in five cases to reanastomose ureter with stent. Four cases reached long-term survival. The rest one died of graft rejection. Ureteral stenoses were found in long-term survival cases. Ureter reanastomoses with stent were performed in two cases. The postoperative renal functions of these two monkeys recovered to normal and they survived until study termination. From this large number of study, our experience indicated that kidney transplantation in the nonhuman primate is a safe procedure with low complications. Reexploration is recommended for salvage of the graft with urine leakage and ureteral stenosis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010.