Preliminary data on the presence of mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, citrinin and aflatoxin B1) in black table olives “Greek style” of Moroccan origin



Many mould strains, in particular Aspergillus and/or Penicillium, are able to develop on olive and produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or citrinin (CIT) and/or aflatoxin B (AFB) after harvest, during drying and storage of olives. The development of fungi on olives is responsible for the reduction of nutritional quality of olive because they can disturb the synthesis of the fatty acids. OTA, CIT and AFB are particularly dangerous for health, inducing cancer of urinary tracts or liver carcinoma. In this study, ten olive samples bought at retailer and at supermarket in Morocco were analyzed for their OTA, CIT and AFB contents. These three mycotoxins were extracted simultaneously by a method based on solvent partition validated in-house, then separated by HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector. All olive samples contain OTA ranging from LOQ to 1.02 μg/kg. Respectively, 50 and 25% from retailer and supermarket samples were contaminated by more than 0.65 μg/kg. In addition, 80% of olive samples contained CIT above LOD, and 100% of olive tested contained AFB above 0.5 μg/kg. As simultaneous presence of these toxins increases toxic risks, it is thus essential to have a good control of the conservation of olives after harvest.