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Keywords:

  • Dibenzopyrene;
  • Rainbow trout;
  • Tomatine;
  • Tomatoes;
  • Tumor prevention

Abstract

The potential anti-carcinogenic effects of tomatine, a mixture of commercial tomato glycoalkaloids α-tomatine and dehydrotomatine (10:1), were examined in the rainbow trout chemoprevention model. Prior to the chemoprevention study, a preliminary toxicity study revealed that tomatine in the diet fed daily at doses from 100 to 2000 parts per million (ppm) for 4 weeks was not toxic to trout. For the tumor study, replicate groups of 105 trout were fed diets containing dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) alone (224 ppm), (N = 3), DBP plus tomatine at 2000 ppm (N = 2), tomatine alone (N = 2), or control diet (N = 2) for 4 weeks. The fish were then returned to control diet for 8 months and necropsied for histopathology. Dietary tomatine was found to reduce DBP-initiated liver tumor incidence from 37.0 to 19.0% and stomach tumor incidence from 46.4 to 29.4%. Tomatine also reduced stomach tumor multiplicity. The tomatine-containing diets did not induce mortality, change in fish weights, or liver weights. No adverse pathological effects in the tissues of the fish on the tomatine diets were observed. Dose-response and chemopreventive mechanisms for tomatine protection remain to be examined. This is the first report on the anticarcinogenic effects of tomatine in vivo.