• Bone morphogenetic protein-2;
  • Differentiation;
  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2;
  • Osteoblasts;
  • Syringetin


Syringetin (3,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxy-3′,5′dimethoxyflavone), a flavonoid derivative, is present in grape and wine. By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, and type I collagen ELISA, we have shown that syringetin exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in MC3T3-E1 mouse calvaria osteoblasts and human fetal osteoblastic 1.19 cell line human osteoblasts. ALP and osteocalcin are phenotypic markers for early-stage differentiated osteoblasts and terminally differentiated osteoblasts, respectively. Our results indicate that syringetin stimulates osteoblast differentiation at various stages, from maturation to terminally differentiated osteoblasts. Induction of differentiation by syringetin is associated with increased bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) production. The BMP-2 antagonist noggin blocked syringetin-mediated ALP activity and osteocalcin secretion enhancement, indicating that BMP-2 production is required in syringetin-mediated osteoblast maturation and differentiation. Induction of differentiation by syringetin is associated with increased activation of SMAD1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Cotreatment of ERK1/2 inhibitor 2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone inhibited syringetin-mediated ALP upregulation and osteocalcin production. In conclusion, syringetin increased BMP-2 synthesis, and subsequently activated SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2, and this effect may contribute to its action on the induction of osteoblast maturation and differentiation, followed by an increase of bone mass.