5 References

  • 1
    Gregory, J., Lowe, S., National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years, The Stationery Office, London 2000.
  • 2
    Benton, D., in: Prasad, C., Lieberman, H., Kanarek, R. (Eds.), Nutrition, Brain & Behavior, vol. 3, Nutritional Neuroscience: Overview of an Emerging Field, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton 2005, pp. 5771.
  • 3
    Ruben, R. J., A time frame of critical/sensitive periods of language development. Acta Otolaryngol. 1997, 117, 202205.
  • 4
    Dekaban, A. S., Sadowsky, D., Changes in brain weights during the span of human life: relation of brain weights to body heights and body weights. Ann. Neurol. 1978, 4, 345356.
  • 5
    Epstein, H. T., Stages in human brain development. Brain Res. 1986, 395, 114119.
  • 6
    Grantham-McGregor, S., Baker-Henningham, H., Review of the evidence linking protein and energy to mental development. Public Health Nutr. 2005, 8, 11911201.
  • 7
    Georgieff, M. K., Nutrition and the developing brain: nutrient priorities and measurement. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 85, 614S620S.
  • 8
    Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F., A follow-up study of the influence of early malnutrition on development: behavior at home and at school. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. 1989, 28, 254261.
  • 9
    Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F., Solimano, G., Lowell, W. E., The influence of early malnutrition on subsequent behavioral development. II. Classroom behavior. J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiat. 1983, 22, 1622.
  • 10
    Lucas, A., Morley, R., Cole, T. J., Gore, S. M., et al., Early diet in preterm babies and developmental status at 18 months. Lancet 1990, 335, 14771481.
  • 11
    Lucas, A., Morley, R., Cole, T. J., Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient. Br. Med. J. 1998, 317, 14811487.
  • 12
    Isaacs, E. B., Gadian, D. G., Sabatini, S., Chong, W. K., et al., The effect of early human diet on caudate volumes and IQ. Pediatr. Res. 2008, 63, 308314.
  • 13
    Delange, F., The role of iodine in brain development. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2000, 59, 7579.
  • 14
    Bleichrodt, N., Born, M. P., in: Stanbury, J. B. (Ed.), The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency, Cognizant Communications, New York 1993, pp. 195200.
  • 15
    Vitti, P., Rago, T., Aghini-Lombardi, F., Pinchera, A., Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe. Public Health Nutr. 2001, 4, 529535.
  • 16
    Zimmermann, M., Delange, F., Iodine supplementation of pregnant women in Europe: a review and recommendations. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004, 58, 979984.
  • 17
    Zimmermann, M. B., The adverse effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and childhood: a review. Thyroid 2007, 17, 829835.
  • 18
    Aghini Lombardi, F. A., Pinchera, A., Antonangeli, L., Rago, T., et al., Mild iodine deficiency during fetal/neonatal life and neuropsychological impairment in Tuscany. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 1995, 18, 5762.
  • 19
    Zimmermann, M. B., Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009, 89, 668S672S.
  • 20
    Tai, M., The devastating consequences of iodine deficiency. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 1997, 28, 7577.
  • 21
    Vulsma, T. in: Pinchera, A., Mann, K., Hostalek, U. (Eds.), The Thyroid and Age, Schattauer, Stuttgart 1998, pp. 3948.
  • 22
    Zimmermann, M. B., Connolly, K., Bozo, M., Bridson, J., et al., Iodine supplementation improves cognition in iodine-deficient schoolchildren, controlled, randomized double-blind study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006, 83, 108114.
  • 23
    Bogen, D. L., Duggan, A. K., Dover, G. J., Wilson, M. H., Screening for iron deficiency anemia by dietary history in a high-risk population. Pediatrics 2000, 105, 12541259.
  • 24
    Lozoff, B., Beard, J., Connor, J., Barbara, F., et al., Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr. Rev. 2006, 64, S34–S43.
  • 25
    Aukett, M. A., Parks, Y. A., Scott, P. H., Wharton, B. A., Treatment with iron increases weight gain and psychomotor development. Arch. Dis Child. 1986, 61, 849857.
  • 26
    Iannotti, L. L., Tielsch, J. M., Black, M. M., Black, R. E., Iron supplementation in early childhood: health benefits and risks. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006, 84, 12611276.
  • 27
    Sachdev, H., Gera, T., Nestel, P., Effect of iron supplementation on mental and motor development in children: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Public Health Nutr. 2005, 8, 117132.
  • 28
    Lozoff, B., Iron deficiency and child development. Food Nutr. Bull. 2007, 28, S560S571.
  • 29
    Beard, J. L., Why iron deficiency is important in infant development. J. Nutr. 2008, 138, 25342536.
  • 30
    Hurtado, E. K., Claussen, A. H., Scott, K. G., Early childhood anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999, 69, 115119.
  • 31
    Lozoff, B., Georgieff, M. K., Iron deficiency and brain development. Semin. Pediatr Neurol. 2006, 13, 158165.
  • 32
    Wu, L. L., Zhang, L., Shao, J., Qin, Y. F., et al., Effect of perinatal iron deficiency on myelination and associated behaviors in rat pups. Behav. Brain Res. 2008, 188, 263270.
  • 33
    Maret, W., Sandstead, H. H., Possible roles of zinc nutriture in the fetal origins of disease. Exp. Gerontol. 2008, 43, 378381.
  • 34
    Black, M. M., Zinc deficiency and child development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998, 68, 464S469S.
  • 35
    Levenson, C. W., Regulation of the NMDA receptor: implications for neuropsychological development. Nutr. Rev. 2006, 64, 428432.
  • 36
    Mahomed, K., Bhutta, Z., Middleton, P., Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2007, 18, CD000230.
  • 37
    Wasantwisut, E., Nutrition and development: other micronutrients' effect on growth and cognition. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 1997, 28, 7882.
  • 38
    Friel, J. K., Andrews, W. L., Matthew, J. D., Long, D. R., et al., Zinc supplementation in very low birth weight infants. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 1993, 17, 97104.
  • 39
    Gibson, R. S., Vanderkooy, P. D., MacDonald, A. C., Goldman, A., et al., A growth-limiting, mild zinc-deficiency syndrome in some southern Ontario boys with low height percentiles. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1989, 49, 12661273.
  • 40
    Penland, J. G., Sandstead, H. H., Alcock, N. W., Dayal, H. H., et al., A preliminary report: effects of zinc and micro-nutrient repletion on growth and neuro-psychological function of urban Chinese children. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1997, 16, 268272.
  • 41
    Bhandari, N., Bahl, R., Taneja, S., Effect of micronutrient supplementation on linear growth of children. Br. J. Nutr. 2001, 85, S131S137.
  • 42
    Walsh, W. J., Isaacson, H. R., Rehman, F., Hall, A., Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiol. Behav. 1997, 62, 327329.
  • 43
    Peters, D. P., Effects of prenatal nutritional deficiency on affiliation and aggression in rats. Physiol. Behav. 1978, 20, 359362.
  • 44
    Arnold, L. E., DiSilvestro, R. A., Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 2005, 15, 619627.
  • 45
    Arnold, L. E., Bozzolo, H., Hollway, J., Cook, A., et al., Serum zinc correlates with parent- and teacher-rated inattention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J. Child Adolesc. Psychopharmacol. 2005, 15, 628636.
  • 46
    Bilici, M., Yildirim, F., Kandil, S., Bekaroğlu, M., et al., Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatr. 2004, 28, 8190.
  • 47
    Akhondzadeh, S., Mohammadi, M., Khademi, M., Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial. Biomed. Chromatogr. Psychiatr. 2004, 4, 9.
  • 48
    Black, M. M., The evidence linking zinc deficiency with children's cognitive and motor functioning. J. Nutr. 2003, 133, 1473S1476S.
  • 49
    Reynolds, E., Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet 2006, 5, 949960.
  • 50
    Pitkin, R. M., Folate and neural tube defects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 85, 285S288S.
  • 51
    Mosley, B. S., Cleves, M. A., Siega-Riz, A. M., Shaw, G. M., et al., National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Neural tube defects and maternal folate intake among pregnancies conceived after folic acid fortification in the United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009, 169, 917.
  • 52
    Baumslag, N., Edelstein, T., Metz, J., Reduction of incidence of prematurity by folic acid supplementation in pregnancy. Br. Med. J. 1970, 1, 5687.
  • 53
    Gross, R. L., Newberne, P. M., Reid, J. V. O., Adverse effects on infant development associated with maternal folic acid deficiency. Nutr. Rep. Intern. 1974, 10, 241248.
  • 54
    Tamura, T., Goldenberg, R. L., Freeberg, L. E., Cliver, S. P., Hoffman, H. J., Maternal serum folate and zinc concentrations and their relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992, 56, 365370.
  • 55
    Tamura, T., Goldenberg, R. L., Chapman, V. R., Johnston, K. E., et al., Folate status of mothers during pregnancy and mental and psychomotor development of their children at five years of age. Pediatrics 2005, 116, 703708.
  • 56
    Black, M. M., Effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children. Food Nutr. Bull. 2008, 29, S126S131.
  • 57
    Dror, D. K., Allen, L. H., Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in I infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms. Nutr. Rev. 2008, 66, 250255.
  • 58
    Wighton, M. C., Manson, J. I., Speed, I., Robertson, E., Chapman, E., Brain damage in infancy and dietary vitamin B12 deficiency. Med. J. Aust. 1979, 14, 13.
  • 59
    Louwman, M. W., van Dusseldorp, M., van de Vijver, F. J., Thomas, C. M., et al., Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000, 72, 762769.
  • 60
    von Schenck, U., Bender-Gotze, C., Koletzko, B., Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency in infancy. Arch. Dis. Child. 1997, 77, 137139.
  • 61
    Molloy, A. M., Kirke, P. N., Brody, L. C., Scott, J. M., Mills, J. L., Effects of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies during pregnancy on fetal, infant, and child development. Food Nutr. Bull. 2008, 29, S101S111.
  • 62
    Lövblad, K., Ramelli, G., Remonda, L., Nirkko, A. C., Ozdoba, C., Schroth, G., Retardation of myelination due to dietary vitamin B12 deficiency: cranial MRI findings. Pediatr Radiol. 1997, 27, 155158.
  • 63
    McCann, J. C., Ames, B. N., Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J. 22, 9821001.
  • 64
    Langub, M. C., Herman, J. P., Malluche, H. H., Koszewski, N. J., Evidence of functional vitamin D receptors in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 2001, 104, 49.
  • 65
    Eyles, D., Brown, J., Mackay-Sim, A., McGrath, J., Feron, F., Vitamin D3 and brain development. Neuroscience 2003, 118, 641.
  • 66
    Zeisel, S. H., Choline: critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 2006, 26, 229250.
  • 67
    Colombo, J. P., Garcia-Rodenas, C., Guesry, P. R., Rey, J., Potential effects of supplementation with amino acids, choline or sialic acid on cognitive development in young infants. Acta Paediatr. Suppl. 2003, 92, 4246.
  • 68
    Zeisel, S. H., Niculescu, M. D., Perinatal choline influences brain structure and function. Nutr. Rev. 2006, 64, 197203.
  • 69
    McCann, J. C., Hudes, M., Ames, B. N., An overview of evidence for a causal relationship between dietary availability of choline during development and cognitive function in offspring. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2006, 30, 696712.
  • 70
    Zeisel, S. H., The fetal origins of memory: the role of dietary choline in optimal brain development. J. Pediatr. 2006, 149, S131S136.
  • 71
    SUMMITT (Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial). Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant death in Indonesia: a double-blind cluster-randomised trial. Lancet 2008, 371, 215227.
  • 72
    Chen, K., Li, T. Y., Chen, L., Qu, P., Liu, Y. X., Effects of vitamin A, vitamin A plus iron and multiple micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder on preschool children in a suburb of Chongqing, China. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 2008, 54, 440447.
  • 73
    Vinod Kumar, M., Rajagopalan, S., Trial using multiple micronutrient food supplement and its effect on cognition. Indian J. Pediatr. 2008, 75, 671678.
  • 74
    Vazir, S., Nagalla, B., Thangiah, V., Kamasamudram, V., Bhattiprolu, S., Effect of micronutrient supplement on health and nutritional status of schoolchildren: mental function. Nutrition 2006, 22, S26S32.
  • 75
    Dangour, A. D., Sibson, V. L., Fletcher, A. E., Micronutrient supplementation in later life: limited evidence for benefit. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2004, 59, 657659.
  • 76
    Benton, D., Vitamin-mineral supplements and intelligence. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1992, 51, 295302.
  • 77
    Benton, D., Griffiths, R., Haller, J., Thiamine supplementation mood and cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacology 1997, 129, 6671.
  • 78
    Benton, D., Roberts, G., Vitamin and mineral supplementation improves the intelligence of a sample of school children. Lancet 1988, 331, 140143.
  • 79
    Benton, D., Micro-nutrient supplementation and the intelligence of children. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2001, 25, 297309.
  • 80
    Osendarp, S. J., Baghurst, K. I., Bryan, J., Calvaresi, E., et al., Effect of a 12-mo micronutrient intervention on learning and memory in well-nourished and marginally nourished school-aged children: 2 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in Australia and Indonesia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 86, 10821093.
  • 81
    Benton, D., Buts, J.-P., Vitamin/mineral supplementation and intelligence. Lancet 1990, 335, 11581160.
  • 82
    Benton, D., The impact of diet on anti-social behaviour. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2007, 31, 752774.
  • 83
    Gesch, C. B., Hammond, S. M., Hampson, S. E., Eves, A., Crowder, M. J., Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young prisoners. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br. J. Psychiat. 2002, 181, 2228.
  • 84
    Schoenthaler, S. J., Amos, S., Doraz,W., Kelly, M. A., et al., The effect of randomized vitamin–mineral supplementation on violent and non-violent anti-social behavior among incarcerated juveniles. J. Nutr. Environ. Med. 1997, 7, 343352.
  • 85
    Schoenthaler, S. J., Bier, I. D., The effect of vitamin–mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Comp. Med. 2000, 6, 717.
  • 86
    Kalhan, S. C., Kilic, I., Carbohydrate as nutrient in the infant and child: range of acceptable intake. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999, 53, S94S100.
  • 87
    Chugani, H. T., A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET. Prev. Med. 1998, 27, 184188.
  • 88
    Benton, D., Stevens, M. K., The influence of a glucose containing drink on the behavior of children in school. Biol. Psychol. 2008, 78, 242245.
  • 89
    Benton, D., Brett, V., Brain, P. F., Glucose improves attention and reaction to frustration in children. Biol. Psychol. 1987, 24, 95100.
  • 90
    Pollitt, E., Mathews, R., Breakfast and cognition: an integrative summary. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998, 67, 804S813S.
  • 91
    Mahoney, C. R., Taylor, H. A., Kanarek, R. B., Samuel, P., Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children. Physiol. Behav. 2005, 85, 635645.
  • 92
    Busch, C. R., Taylor, H. A., Kanarek, R. B., Holcomb, P. J., The effects of a confectionery snack on attention in young boys. Physiol. Behav. 2002, 77, 333340.
  • 93
    Vaisman, N., Voet, H., Akivis, A., Vakil, E., Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students. Arch. Pediat. Adoles. Med. 1996, 150, 10891092.
  • 94
    Benton, D., Ruffin, M.-P., Lassel, T., Nabb, S., et al., The delivery rate of dietary carbohydrates affects cognitive performances in both rats and humans. Psychopharmacology 2003, 166, 8690.
  • 95
    Nabb, S., Benton, D., The influence on cognition and mood of the interaction between the macro-nutrient content of breakfast and glucose tolerance. Physiol. Behav. 2006, 87, 1623.
  • 96
    Nabb, S., Benton, D., The effect of the interaction between glucose tolerance and breakfasts varying in carbohydrate and fibre on mood and cognition. Nutr. Neurosci. 2006, 9, 161168.
  • 97
    Benton, D., Maconie, A., Williams, C., The influence of the glycaemic load of breakfast on the behaviour of children in school. Physiol. Behav. 2007, 92, 717724.
  • 98
    Ingwersen, J., Defeyter, M. A., Kennedy, D. O., Wesnes, K. A., Scholey, A. B., A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning. Appetite 2007, 49, 240244.
  • 99
    Benton, D., Jarvis, M., The role of breakfast and a mid-morning snack on the ability of children to concentrate at school. Physiol. Behav. 2007, 90, 382385.
  • 100
    Muthayya, S., Thomas, T., Srinivasan, K., Rao, K., et al., Consumption of a mid-morning snack improves memory but not attention in school children. Physiol. Behav. 2007, 90, 142150.
  • 101
    Zeisel, S. H., Is maternal diet supplementation beneficial? Optimal development of infant depends on mother's diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009, 89, 685S687S.
  • 102
    WHO, The World Health Report, Geneva, 2002.
  • 103
    World Bank, Enriching Lives, Washington, DC, 1993.
  • 104
    Briefel, R., Hanson, C., Fox, M. K., Novak, T., Ziegler, P., Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: do vitamin and mineral supplements contribute to nutrient adequacy or excess among US infants and toddlers? J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2006, 106, S52S65.
  • 105
    Haider, B. A., Bhutta, Z. A., Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database System. Rev. 2006, 4, CD004905. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004905.
  • 106
    Shenkin, S. D., Starr, J. M., Pattie, A., Rush, M. A., Whalley, L. J., Deary, I. J., Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. Arch. Dis. Child. 2001, 85, 189196.
  • 107
    Richards, M., Hardy, R., Kuh, D., Wadsworth, M. E., Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study. Br. Med. J. 2001, 32, 199203.
  • 108
    Sorensen, H. T., Sabroe, S., Olsen, J., Rothman, K. J., et al., Birth weight and cognitive function in young adult life: historical cohort study. Br. Med. J. 1997, 315, 401403.
  • 109
    Matte, T. D., Bresnahan, M., Begg, M. D., Susser, E., Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study. Br. Med. J. 2001, 323, 310314.