These authors contributed equally to this work
Coffee, broccoli and spices are strong inducers of electrophile response element-dependent transcription in vitro and in vivo – Studies in electrophile response element transgenic mice
Article first published online: 8 SEP 2010
Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 55, Issue 2, pages 185–197, February 2011
How to Cite
Balstad, T. R., Carlsen, H., Myhrstad, M. C. W., Kolberg, M., Reiersen, H., Gilen, L., Ebihara, K., Paur, I. and Blomhoff, R. (2011), Coffee, broccoli and spices are strong inducers of electrophile response element-dependent transcription in vitro and in vivo – Studies in electrophile response element transgenic mice. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 55: 185–197. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201000204
- Issue published online: 3 FEB 2011
- Article first published online: 8 SEP 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 JUL 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 28 JUN 2010
- Manuscript Received: 3 MAY 2010
- Research Council of Norway
- Norwegian Cancer Society
- Johan Throne Holst Foundation
- Cytoprotective proteins;
- Electrophile response element;
- In vivo imaging;
- Transgenic mice
Scope: Cytoprotective gene products, e.g. phase II – and antioxidant enzymes, are important in cellular redox homeostasis. A common feature of these genes is binding sites for transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), named electrophile response elements (EpREs) within their promoters.
Methods and results: To identify dietary bioactive compounds and foods with Nrf2/EpRE inducing properties in an intact organism, we utilized transgenic mice encoding luciferase under control of EpRE from the thioredoxin promoter. We found that 18 of 31 phytochemicals and 10 of 14 dietary plant extracts induced EpRE activity in liver HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, some dietary plant extracts showed profound inducing capability as compared to pure compounds indicating combinatorial effects of compounds found in whole foods. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injections of carnosol, curcumin and tert benzohydroquinine induced EpRE-dependent promoter activity in transgenic mice. In further experiments with curcumin, we found highly induced EpRE activity in intestine, liver, kidney and spleen. Finally, a combination extract made of coffee, thyme, broccoli, rosemary, turmeric and red onion fed orally, induced EpRE mediated luciferase in lung and adipose tissue.
Conclusion: These results show that plant-based foods contain compounds that can be absorbed and induce the antioxidant defence in a living organism in an organ-specific manner.