Differential effects of sulforaphane on histone deacetylases, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in normal prostate cells versus hyperplastic and cancerous prostate cells
Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 55, Issue 7, pages 999–1009, July 2011
How to Cite
Clarke, J. D., Hsu, A., Yu, Z., Dashwood, R. H. and Ho, E. (2011), Differential effects of sulforaphane on histone deacetylases, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in normal prostate cells versus hyperplastic and cancerous prostate cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 55: 999–1009. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201000547
- Issue published online: 4 JUL 2011
- Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 DEC 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 14 DEC 2010
- Manuscript Received: 2 NOV 2010
- NIH. Grant Numbers: CA090890, CA122906
- Oregon AES. Grant Numbers: OR00735, 1S10RR022589
- Environmental Health Science Center at Oregon State University. Grant Number: NIEHS P30 ES00210
- Prostate cancer
Scope: Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. The ability of SFN to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes may be one mechanism by which it acts as a chemoprevention agent. The ability of a chemopreventive agent to specifically cause cytotoxicity in cancer and not normal cells is an important factor in determining its safety and clinical relevance.
Methods and results: We characterized the effects of SFN in normal (PrEC), benign hyperplasia (BPH1) and cancerous (LnCap and PC3) prostate epithelial cells. We observed that 15 μM SFN selectively induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in BPH1, LnCap and PC3 cells but not PrEC cells. SFN treatment also selectively decreased HDAC activity, and Class I and II HDAC proteins, increased acetylated histone H3 at the promoter for P21, induced p21 expression and increased tubulin acetylation in prostate cancer cells. HDAC6 over-expression was able to reverse SFN-induced cyotoxicity. In PrEC cells, SFN caused only a transient reduction in HDAC activity with no change in any other endpoints tested. The differences in sensitivity to SFN in PrEC and PC3 are likely not due to differences in SFN metabolism or differences in phase 2 enzyme induction.
Conclusion: SFN exerts differential effects on cell proliferation, HDAC activity and downstream targets in normal and cancer cells.