Scope: The effect of soy food supplementation or dietary fat reduction on gene expression is not well studied.
Methods and results: We evaluated the potential of gene expression profiling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected at baseline and at the completion of an 8-wk controlled dietary intervention. Healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to a very-low-fat diet (VLFD; 11% of energy as fat) (n=21), a Step 1 diet (25% energy as fat) supplemented with soy food (SFD; 50 mg isoflavones per day) (n=20), or a control Step 1 diet (CD; 27% energy as fat) with no SFD (n=18). All diets were prepared at the General Clinical Research Center of the University of Southern California. We did not observe any gene that showed variable response across the three dietary interventions. However, there were notable changes in gene expression associated with the intervention in the VLFD and SFD groups. Our findings suggest that the expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and genes related to Fc γ R-mediated phagocytosis and cytokine interactions may be significantly altered in association with dietary fat reduction and soy supplementation. Gene expression changes in NAMPT were somewhat dampened with adjustment for weight but changes related to Fc γ R-mediated phagocytosis and cytokine interactions remained largely unchanged.
Conclusion: PBMCs can reveal novel gene expression changes in association with controlled dietary intervention.