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Keywords:

  • Inflammation;
  • Mononuclear cells;
  • Olive mill wastewater;
  • Phenols;
  • Postprandial state

Abstract

Scope Heating during the process of cooking alters the chemical properties of foods and may affect subsequent postprandial inflammation. We tested the effects of four meals rich in different oils subjected to heating on the postprandial inflammatory metabolism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

Methods and results Twenty obese participants received four breakfasts following a randomized crossover design, consisting of milk and muffins made with different oils (virgin olive oil (VOO), sunflower oil (SFO), and a mixture of seeds oil (SFO/canola oil) with added either dimethylpolysiloxane (SOD), or natural antioxidants from olive mill wastewater alperujo (phenols; SOP)), previously subjected to 20 heating cycles. Postprandial inflammatory status in PBMCs was assessed by the activation of nuclear NF-κB, the concentration in cytoplasm of the NF-κB inhibitor (IκB-α), the mRNA levels of NF-κB subunits and activators (p65, IKKβ, and IKKα) and other inflammatory molecules (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MIF, and JNK), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. VOO and SOP breakfasts reduced NF-κB activation, increased IκB-α, and decreased LPS plasma concentration. SFO increased IKKα, IKKβ, p65, IL-1b, IL-6, MIF, and JNK mRNA levels, and plasma LPS

Conclusion Oils rich in phenols, whether natural (VOO) or artificially added (SOP), reduce postprandial inflammation, compared with seed oil (sunflower).