8 References

  • 1
    Weber, K. T., Weglicki, W. B., Simpson, R. U., Macro- and micronutrient dyshomeostasis in the adverse structural remodelling of myocardium. Cardiovasc. Res. 2009, 81, 500508.
  • 2
    Rotruck, J. T., Pope, A. L., Ganther, H. E., Hoekstra, W. G., Prevention of oxidative damage to rat erythrocytes by dietary selenium. J. Nutr. 1972, 102, 689696.
  • 3
    Rotruck, J. T., Pope, A. L., Ganther, H. E., Swanson, A. B. et al., Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 1973, 179, 588590.
  • 4
    Salonen, J. T., Alfthan, G., Huttunen, J. K., Pikkarainen, J., et al., Association between cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction and serum selenium in a matched-pair longitudinal study. Lancet 1982, 2, 175179.
  • 5
    Kryukov, G. V., Castellano, S., Novoselov, S. V., Lobanov, A. V. et al., Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science 2003, 300, 14391443.
  • 6
    Gmelin, C. G., Versuche über die wirkungen des baryts, stontians, chroms, molybdäns, wolframs, tellers, titans, osmiums, platins, iridiums, rhodiums, palladiums, nickels, kobalts, urans, ceriums, eisens und mangans auf den thierischen organimus. Arch. Pharm. 1824, 12, 242246.
  • 7
    Jones, B. O., The physiological effects of selenium compounds with relation to their action on glycogen and sugar derivatives in the tissues. Biochem. J. 1909, 4, 405419.
  • 8
    Schwartz, K., Foltz, C. M., Selenium as an integral part of factor 3 against dietary necrotic degeneration. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1957, 79, 6067.
  • 9
    Kim, Y. Y., Mahan D. C., Biological aspects of selenium in farm animals. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 2003, 16, 435444.
  • 10
    Flohe, L., Günzler, W. A., Schock, H. H., Glutathione peroxidase: a selenoenzyme. FEBS Lett. 1973, 32, 132134.
  • 11
    Berry, M. J., Tujebajeva, R. M., Copeland, P. R., Xu, X. M. et al., Selenocysteine incorporation directed from the 3’UTR: characterization of eukaryotic EFsec and mechanistic implications. Biofactors 2001, 14, 1724.
  • 12
    Forstrom, J. W., Zakowski, J. J., Tappel, A. L., Identification of the catalytic site of rat liver glutathione peroxidase as selenocysteine. Biochemistry 1978, 17, 26392644.
  • 13
    Low, S. C., Berry, M. J., Knowing when not to stop: selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. Trends Biochem. Sci. 1996, 21, 203208.
  • 14
    Boucher, F., Coudray, C., Tirard, V., Barandier, C. et al., Oral selenium supplementation in rats reduces cardiac toxicity of adriamycin during ischemia and reperfusion. Nutrition 1995, 11, 708711.
  • 15
    Tanguy, S., Boucher, F., Besse, S., Ducros, V. et al., Trace elements and cardioprotection: increasing endogenous glutathione peroxidase activity by oral selenium supplementation in rats limits reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 1998, 12, 2838.
  • 16
    Tanguy, S., Morel, S., Berthonneche, C., Toufektsian, M. C. et al., Preischemic selenium status as a major determinant of myocardial infarct size in vivo in rats. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2004, 6, 792796.
  • 17
    Tamura, T., Stadtman, T. C., Mammalian thioredoxin reductases. Methods Enzymol. 2002, 347, 297306.
  • 18
    Tanguy, S., Rakotovao, A., Jouan, M. G., Ghezzi, C. et al., Dietary selenium intake influences Cx43 dephosphorylation, TNF-α expression and cardiac remodeling after reperfused infarction. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2011, 55, 522529.
  • 19
    Beckett, G. J., Arthur, J. R., Selenium and endocrine systems. J. Endocrinol. 2005, 184, 455465.
  • 20
    Dhingra, S., Bansal, M. P., Hypercholesterolemia and tissue-specific differential mRNA expression of type-1 5’-iodothyronine deiodinase under different selenium status in rats. Biol. Res. 2006, 39, 307319.
  • 21
    Pol, C. J., Muller, A., Simonides, W. S., Cardiomyocyte-specific inactivation of thyroid hormone in pathologic ventricular hypertrophy: an adaptative response or part of the problem? Heart Fail. Rev. 2010, 15, 133142.
  • 22
    Wang, Y. Y., Morimoto, S., Du, C. K., Lu, Q. W. et al., Up-regulation of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc. Res. 2010, 87, 636646.
  • 23
    Motsenbocker, M. A., Tappel, A. L., A selenocysteine-containing selenium-transport protein in rat plasma. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1982, 719, 147153.
  • 24
    Burk, R. F., Hill, K. E., Selenoprotein P: an extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and a role in selenium homeostasis. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 2005, 25, 215235.
  • 25
    Hara, S., Shoji, Y., Sakurai, A., Yuasa, K. et al., Effects of selenium deficiency on expression of selenoproteins in bovine arterial endothelial cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2001, 24, 754759.
  • 26
    Vendeland, S. C., Beilstein, M. A., Chen, C. L., Jensen, O. N. et al., Purification and properties of selenoprotein W from rat muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 1993, 268, 1710317107.
  • 27
    Yeh, J. Y., Gu, Q. P., Beilstein, M. A., Forsberg, N. E. et al., Selenium influences tissue levels of selenoprotein W in sheep. J. Nutr. 1997, 127, 394402.
  • 28
    Yeh, J. Y., Vendeland, S. C., Gu, Q., Butler, J. A. et al., Dietary selenium increases selenoprotein W levels in rat tissues. J. Nutr. 1997, 127, 21652172.
  • 29
    Panee, J., Stoytcheva, Z. R., Liu, W., Berry, M. J., Selenoprotein H is a redox-sensing high mobility group family DNA-binding protein that up-regulates genes involved in glutathione synthesis and phase II detoxification. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 2375923765.
  • 30
    Novoselov, S. V., Kryukov, G. V., Xu, X. M., Carlson, B. A. et al., Selenoprotein H is a nucleolar thioredoxin-like protein with a unique expression pattern. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 1196011968.
  • 31
    Horibata, Y., Hirabayashi, Y., Identification and characterization of human ethanolaminephosphotransferase1. J. Lipid. Res. 2007, 48, 503508.
  • 32
    Moskovitz, J., Prolonged selenium-deficient diet in MsrA knockout mice causes enhanced oxidative modification to proteins and affects the levels of antioxidant enzymes in a tissue-specific manner. Free Radic. Res. 2007, 41, 162171.
  • 33
    Hoffmann, F. W., Hashimoto, A. S., Lee, B. C., Rose, A. H. et al., Specific antioxidant selenoproteins are induced in the heart during hypertrophy. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2011, 512, 3844.
  • 34
    Petit, N., Lescure, A., Rederstorff, M., Krol, A. et al., Selenoprotein N: an endoplasmic reticulum glycoprotein with an early developmental expression pattern. Hum. Mol. Genet. 2003, 12, 10451053.
  • 35
    Arbogast, S., Ferreiro, A., Selenoproteins and protection against oxidative stress: selenoprotein N as a novel player at the crossroads of redox signaling and calcium homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2010, 12, 893904.
  • 36
    Bar-Nun, S., The role of p97/Cdc48p in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation: from the immune system to yeast. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2005, 300, 95125.
  • 37
    Curran, J. E., Jowett, J. B., Elliott, K. S., Gao, Y. et al., Genetic variation in selenoprotein S influences inflammatory response. Nat. Genet. 2005, 37, 12341241.
  • 38
    Alanne, M., Kristiansson, K., Auro, K., Silander, K. et al., Variation in the selenoprotein S gene locus is associated with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke in two independent Finnish cohorts. Hum. Genet. 2007, 122, 355365.
  • 39
    Reeves, M. A., Hoffmann, P. R., The human selenoproteome: recent insights into functions and regulation. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2009, 66, 24572478.
  • 40
    Lu, C., Qiu, F., Zhou, H., Peng, Y., et al., Identification and characterization of selenoprotein K: an antioxidant in cardiomyocytes. FEBS Lett. 2006, 580, 51895197.
  • 41
    Reeves, M. A., Bellinger, F. P., Berry, M. J., The neuroprotective functions of selenoprotein M and its role in cytosolic calcium regulation. Antioxid. Redox. Signal. 2010, 12, 809818.
  • 42
    Grumolato, L., Ghzili, H., Montero-Hadjadje, M., Gasman, S. et al., Selenoprotein T is a PACAP-regulated gene involved in intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and neuroendocrine secretion. FASEB J. 2008, 22, 17561768.
  • 43
    Dikiy, A., Novoselov, S. V., Fomenko, D. E., Sengupta, A., et al., SelT, SelW, SelH, and Rdx12: genomics and molecular insights into the functions of selenoproteins of a novel thioredoxin-like family. Biochemistry 2007, 46, 68716882.
  • 44
    Nakano, E., Takeshige, K., Toshima, Y., Tokunaga, K., et al., Oxidative damage in selenium deficient hearts on perfusion with adriamycin: protective role of glutathione peroxidase system. Cardiovasc. Res. 1989, 23, 498504.
  • 45
    Boucher, F., Jouan, M. G., Moro, C., Rakotovao, A. N. et al., Does selenium exert cardioprotective effects against oxidative stress in myocardial ischemia? Acta Physiol. Hung. 2008, 95, 187194.
  • 46
    Venardos, K., Perkins, A., Headrick, J., Kaye, D. M., Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, antioxidant enzyme systems, and selenium: a review. Curr. Med. Chem. 2007, 14, 15391549.
  • 47
    Lymbury, R. S., Marino, M. J., Perkins, A. V., Effect of dietary selenium on the progression of heart failure in the ageing spontaneously hypertensive rat. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2010, 54, 14361444.
  • 48
    Soudani, N., Ben Amara, I., Troudi, A., Hakim, A. et al., Oxidative damage induced by chromium (VI) in rat erythrocytes: protective effect of selenium. J. Physiol. Biochem. 2011, 67, 577588.
  • 49
    Gao, J., Xiong, Y., Ho, Y. S., Liu, X., et al., Glutathione peroxidase 1-deficient mice are more susceptible to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2008, 1783, 20202029.
  • 50
    Maulik, N., Das, D. K., Emerging potential of thioredoxin and thioredoxin interacting proteins in various disease conditions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2008, 1780, 13681382.
  • 51
    Ago, T., Sadoshima, J., Thioredoxin and ventricular remodeling. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2006, 41, 762773.
  • 52
    Mozaffarian, D., Fish, Mercury, Selenium and cardiovascular risk : current evidence and unanswered questions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 18941916.
  • 53
    Rayman, M. P., The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 2000, 356, 3341.
  • 54
    Longnecker, M. P., Taylor, P. R., Levander, O. A., Howe, M. et al., Selenium in diet, blood, and toenails in relation to human health in a seleniferous area. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991, 53, 12881294.
  • 55
    Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary References Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and carotenoids. National Academic Press, Washington D. C., 2000, pp. 284324.
  • 56
    Burk, R. F., Hill, K. E., Motley, A. K., Plasma selenium in specific and non-specific forms. Biofactors 2001, 14, 107114.
  • 57
    Stranges, S., Navas-Acien, A., Rayman, M. P., Guallar, E., Selenium status and cardiometabolic health: state of the evidence. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2010, 20, 754760.
  • 58
    Huang, W., Akesson, B., Svensson, B. G., Schütz, A. et al., Selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase (EC in plasma as indices of selenium status in relation to the intake of fish. Brit. J. Nutr. 1995, 73, 455461.
  • 59
    Rayman, M. P., Stranges, S., Griffin, B. A., Pastor-Barriuso, R., et al., Effect of supplementation with high-selenium yeast on plasma lipids: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 2011, 154, 656665.
  • 60
    Stranges, S., Tabák, A. G., Guallar, E., Rayman, M. P. et al., Selenium status and blood lipids: the cardiovascular risk in young finns study. J. Intern. Med. 2011, 270, 469477.
  • 61
    Lei, X. G., Dann, H. M., Ross, D. A., Cheng, W. H. et al., Dietary selenium supplementation is required to support full expression of three selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases in various tissues of weanling pigs. J. Nutr. 1998, 128, 130135.
  • 62
    White, C. L., Caldwalader, T. K., Hoekstra, W. G., Pope, A. L., Effects of copper and molybdenum supplements on the copper and selenium status of pregnant ewes and lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 1989, 67, 803809.
  • 63
    Taylor, J. B., Reynolds, L. P., Redmer, D. A., Caton, J. S., Maternal and fetal tissue selenium loads in nulliparous ewes fed supranutritional and excessive selenium during mid- to late pregnancy. J. Anim. Sci. 2009, 87, 18281834.
  • 64
    Schwenke, D. C., Behr, S. R., Vitamin E combined with selenium inhibits atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits independently of effects on plasma cholesterol concentrations. Circ. Res. 1998, 83, 366377.
  • 65
    Huang, K., Liu, H., Chen, Z., Xu, H., Role of selenium in cytoprotection against cholesterol oxide-induced vascular damage in rats. Atherosclerosis 2002, 162, 137144.
  • 66
    Kabirov, K. K., Kapetanovic, I. M., Lyubimov, A. V., Direct determination of selenium in rat blood plasma by Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2008, 171, 152158.
  • 67
    Crespo, A. M., Neve, J., Pinto, R. E., Plasma and liver selenium levels in the rat during supplementation with 0.5, 2, 6, and 15 ppm selenium in drinking water. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1993, 38, 139147.
  • 68
    Kok, F. J., Hofman, A., Witteman, J. C., de Bruijn, A. M. et al., Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1989, 261, 11611164.
  • 69
    Bleys, J., Navas-Acien, A., Laclaustra, M., Pastor-Barriuso, R. et al., Serum selenium and peripheral arterial disease: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey, 2003-2004. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009, 169, 9961003.
  • 70
    Rakotovao, A., Tanguy, S., Toufektsian, M. C., Berthonneche, C. et al., Selenium status as determinant of connexin-43 dephosphorylation in ex vivo ischemic/reperfused rat myocardium. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2005, 19, 4347.
  • 71
    Tanguy, S., Toufektsian, M. C., Besse, S., Ducros, V. et al., Dietary selenium intake affects cardiac susceptibility to ischaemia/reperfusion in male senescent rats. Age Ageing 2003, 32, 273578.
  • 72
    Toufektsian, M. C., Boucher, F., Pucheu, S., Tanguy, S. et al., Effects of selenium deficiency on the response of cardiac tissue to ischemia and reperfusion. Toxicology 2000, 148, 125132.
  • 73
    Pucheu, S., Coudray, C., Tresallet, N., Favier, A., et al., Effect of dietary antioxidant trace element supply on cardiac tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion in the rat. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 1995, 27, 23032314.
  • 74
    Dursun, N., Taşkın, E., Yerer Aycan, M. B., Sahin, L., Selenium-mediated cardioprotection against adriamycin-induced mitochondrial damage. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 2011, 34, 199207.
  • 75
    Venardos, K., Harrison, G., Headrick, J., Perkins, A., Effects of dietary selenium on glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activity and recovery from cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2004, 8, 8188.
  • 76
    Venardos, K., Harrison, G., Headrick, J., Perkins, A., Selenium supplementation and ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Redox Rep. 2004, 9, 317320.
  • 77
    Ostadalova, I., Vobecky, M., Chvojkova, Z., Mikova, D. et al., Selenium protects the immature rat heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2007, 300, 259267.
  • 78
    Moritz, F., Monteil, C., Isabelle, M., Mulder, P., et al., Selenium diet-supplementation improves cocaine-induced myocardial oxidative stress and prevents cardiac dysfunction in rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 2004, 18, 431436.
  • 79
    Aydemir-Koksoy, A., Bilginoglu, A., Sariahmetoglu, M., Schulz, R., et al., Antioxidant treatment protects diabetic rats from cardiac dysfunction by preserving contractile protein targets of oxidative stress. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2010, 21, 827833.
  • 80
    Xu, G. L., Wang, S. C., Gu, B. Q., Yang, Y. X. et al., Further investigation on the role of selenium deficiency in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Keshan disease. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 1997, 10, 316326.
  • 81
    Levander, O. A., Beck, M. A., Selenium and viral virulence. Br. Med. Bull. 1999, 55, 528533.
  • 82
    Bai, J., Wu, S., Ge, K. et al., The combined effect of selenium deficiency and viral infection on the myocardium of mice. Acta Acad. Med. Sin. 1980, 2, 2933.
  • 83
    Beck, M. A., Williams-Toone, D., Levander, O. A., Coxsackievirus B3-resistant mice become susceptible in Se/vitamin E deficiency. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2003, 34, 12631270.
  • 84
    Jun, E. J., Ye, J. S., Hwang, I. S., Kim, Y. K., et al., Selenium deficiency contributes to the chronic myocarditis in coxsackievirus-infected mice. Acta Virol. 2011, 55, 2329.
  • 85
    Beck, M. A., Esworthy, R. S., Ho, Y. S., Chu, F. F., Glutathione peroxidase protects mice from viral-induced myocarditis. FASEB J. 1998, 12, 11431149.
  • 86
    Rivera, M. T., de Souza, A. P., Moreno, A. H., Xavier, S. S. et al., Progressive Chagas’ cardiomyopathy is associated with low selenium levels. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2002, 66, 706712.
  • 87
    Singal, P. K., Iliskovic, N., Li, T., Kumar, D., Adriamycin cardiomyopathy: pathophysiology and prevention. FASEB J. 1997, 11, 931936.
  • 88
    Tokarska-Schlattner, M., Zaugg, M., Zuppinger, C., et al., New insights into doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: the critical role of cellular energetics. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2006, 41, 389405.
  • 89
    Quiles, J. L., Huertas, J. R., Battino, M., Mataix, J., et al., Antioxidant nutrients and adriamycin toxicity. Toxicology 2002, 180, 7995.
  • 90
    Chen, X. S., Xue, A., Morris, V. C., Ferrans, V. J. et al., Effect of selenium deficiency on the chronic toxicity of adriamycin in rats. J. Nutr. 1986, 116, 24532465.
  • 91
    Coudray, C., Mouhieddine, S., Richard, M. J., Arnaud, J. et al., Effects of adriamycin on chronic cardiotoxicity in selenium-deficient rats. Basic Res. Cardiol. 1992, 87, 173183.
  • 92
    Matsuda, A., Kimura, M., Itokawa, Y., Influence of selenium deficiency on the acute cardiotoxicity of adriamycin in rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1997, 57, 157167.
  • 93
    Fischer, J. G., Tackett, R. L., Howerth, E. W., Johnson, M. A., Copper and selenium deficiencies do not enhance the cardiotoxicity in rats due to chronic doxorubicin treatment. J. Nutr. 1992, 122, 21282137.
  • 94
    Sokolove, P. M., Kester, M. B., Haynes, J., Interaction of adriamycin aglycones with isolated mitochondria. Effect of selenium deficiency. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1993, 46, 691697.
  • 95
    Hawkes, W. C., Laslett, L. J., Selenium supplementation does not improve vascular responsiveness in healthy North American men. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2009, 296, H256H262.
  • 96
    Alissa, E. M., Bahijri, S. M., Ferns, G. A., The controversy surrounding selenium and cardiovascular disease: a review of the evidence. Med. Sci. Monit. 2003, 9, RA9RA18.
  • 97
    Spiller, H. A., Pfiefer, E., Two fatal cases of selenium toxicity. Forensic. Sci. Int. 2007, 171, 6772.
  • 98
    Lippman, S. M., Klein, E. A., Goodman, P. J., Lucia, M. S. et al., Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009, 301, 3951.
  • 99
    Stranges, S., Sieri, S., Vinceti, M., Grioni, S. et al., A prospective study of dietary selenium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. BMC Public Health. 2010, 10, 564571.
  • 100
    Laclaustra, M., Stranges, S., Navas-Acien, A., Ordovas, J. M., et al., Serum selenium and serum lipids in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Atherosclerosis. 2010, 210, 643648.
  • 101
    Stranges, S., Marshall, J. R., Natarajan, R., Donahue, R. P. et al., Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 2007, 147, 217223.
  • 102
    Fürnsinn, C., Englisch, R., Ebner, K., Nowotny, P. et al., Insulin-like vs. non-insulin-like stimulation of glucose metabolism by vanadium, tungsten, and selenium compounds in rat muscle. Life Sci. 1996, 59, 19892000.
  • 103
    Bleys, J., Navas-Acien, A., Guallar, E., Serum selenium levels and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality among US adults. Arch. Intern. Med. 2008, 168, 404410.
  • 104
    Hercberg, S., Bertrais, S., Czernichow, S., Noisette, N. et al., Alterations of the lipid profile after 7.5 years of low-dose antioxidant supplementation in the SU.VI.MAX Study. Lipids. 2005, 40, 335342.
  • 105
    Coudray, C., Roussel, A. M., Mainard, F., Arnaud, J., et al., Lipid peroxidation level and antioxidant micronutrient status in a pre-aging population; correlation with chronic disease prevalence in a French epidemiological study (Nantes, France). J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1997, 16, 584591.
  • 106
    Ceriello, A., Possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Diabetes Care 2008, 31, S181S184.
  • 107
    Das, U. N., Nutritional factors in the pathobiology of human essential hypertension. Nutrition 2001, 17, 337346.
  • 108
    Nawrot, T. S., Staessen, J. A., Roels, H. A., Den Hond, E. et al., Blood pressure and blood selenium: a cross-sectional and longitudinal population study. Eur. Heart J. 2007, 28, 628633.
  • 109
    Salonen, J. T., Salonen, R., Ihanainen, M., Parviainen, M., et al., Blood pressure, dietary fats, and antioxidants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1988, 48, 12261232.
  • 110
    Virtamo, J., Valkeila, E., Alfthan, G., Punsar, S. et al., Serum selenium and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1985, 122, 276282.
  • 111
    Jossa, F., Trevisan, M., Krogh, V., Farinaro, E. et al., Serum selenium and coronary heart disease risk factors in southern Italian men. Atherosclerosis 1991, 87, 129134.
  • 112
    Laclaustra, M., Navas-Acien, A., Stranges, S., Ordovas, J. M., et al., Serum selenium concentrations and hypertension in the US Population. Circ. Cardiovasc. Qual. Outcomes. 2009, 2, 369376.
  • 113
    Hori, M., Nishida, K., Oxidative stress and left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc. Res. 2009, 81, 457464.
  • 114
    Panicker, S., Swathy, S. S., John, F., Madambath, I., Impact of selenium on NFκB translocation in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2010, 138, 202211.
  • 115
    Lee, Y., Gustafsson, A. B., Role of apoptosis in cardiovascular disease. Apoptosis. 2009, 14, 536548.
  • 116
    Mukherjee, S., Gangopadhyay, H., Das, D. K., Broccoli: a unique vegetable that protects mammalian hearts through the redox cycling of the thioredoxin superfamily. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 609617.
  • 117
    Adesse, D., Goldenberg, R. C., Fortes, F. S., Jasmin, et al., Gap junctions and chagas disease. Adv. Parasitol. 2011, 76, 6381.
  • 118
    Ai, X., Jiang, A., Ke, Y., Solaro, R. J., et al., Enhanced activation of p21-activated kinase 1 in heart failure contributes to dephosphorylation of connexin 43. Cardiovasc. Res. 2011, 92, 106114.
  • 119
    Taglieri, D. M., Monasky, M. M., Knezevic, I., Sheehan, K. A. et al., Ablation of p21-activated kinase-1 in mice promotes isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in association with activation of Erk1/2 and inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2011, 51, 988996.
  • 120
    Sheehan, K. A., Ke, Y., Solaro, R. J., p21-Activated kinase-1 and its role in integrated regulation of cardiac contractility. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2007, 293, R963R973.
  • 121
    Jung, K. J., Lee, E. K., Yu, B. P., Chung, H. Y., Significance of protein tyrosine kinase/protein tyrosine phosphatase balance in the regulation of NF-kappaB signaling in the inflammatory process and aging. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2009, 47, 983991.
  • 122
    Jeyaraman, M., Tanguy, S., Fandrich, R. R., Lukas, A., et al., Ischemia-induced dephosphorylation of cardiomyocyte connexin-43 is reduced by okadaic acid and calyculin A but not fostriecin. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2003, 242, 129134.
  • 123
    Bellinger, F. P., Raman, A. V., Reeves, M. A., Berry, M. J., Regulation and function of selenoproteins in human disease. Biochem. J. 2009, 422, 1122.
  • 124
    Bergmann, M. W., Loser, P., Dietz, R., von Harsdorf, R., Effect of NF-kappa B Inhibition on TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and downstream pathways in cardiomyocytes. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2001, 33, 12231232.
  • 125
    Fradejas, N., Pastor, M. D., Mora-Lee, S., Tranque, P., et al., SEPS1 gene is activated during astrocyte ischemia and shows prominent antiapoptotic effects. J. Mol. Neurosci. 2008, 35, 259265.
  • 126
    Shalini, S., Bansal, M. P., Role of selenium in regulation of spermatogenesis: involvement of activator protein 1. Biofactors 2005, 23, 151162.
  • 127
    Aboul-Soud, M. A., Al-Othman, A. M., El-Desoky, G. E., Al-Othman, Z. A. et al., Hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E/selenium against malathion-induced injuries on the antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression in rats. J. Toxicol. Sci. 2011, 36, 285296.
  • 128
    Miranda, S. G., Purdie, N. G., Osborne, V. R., Coomber, B. L., et al., Selenomethionine increases proliferation and reduces apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells under oxidative stress. J. Dairy Sci. 2011, 94, 165173.
  • 129
    Asfour, I. A., El-Tehewi, M. M., Ahmed, M. H., Abdel-Sattar, M. A. et al., High-dose sodium selenite can induce apoptosis of lymphoma cells in adult patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2009, 127, 200210.
  • 130
    Mauro, M. O., Sartori, D., Oliveira, R. J., Ishii, P. L. et al., Activity of selenium on cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis and on the expression of CASP9, BCL-XL and APC in intestinal adenocarcinoma cells. Mutat. Res. 2011, 715, 712.
  • 131
    Crack, P. J., Taylor, J. M., Flentjar, N. J., de Haan, J. et al., Increased infarct size and exacerbated apoptosis in the glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx-1) knockout mouse brain in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. J. Neurochem. 2001, 78, 13891399.
  • 132
    Lubos, E., Loscalzo, J., Handy, D. E., Glutathione peroxidase-1 in health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2011, 15, 19571997.
  • 133
    Berthonneche, C., Sulpice, T., Boucher, F., Gouraud, L. et al., New insights into the pathological role of TNF-alpha in early cardiac dysfunction and subsequent heart failure after infarction in rats. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2004, 287, H340H350.
  • 134
    Berthonneche, C., Sulpice, T., Tanguy, S., O'Connor, S. et al., AT1 receptor blockade prevents cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction in rats. Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. 2005, 19, 251259.
  • 135
    Moro, C., Jouan, M. G., Rakotovao, A., Toufektsian, M. C. et al., Delayed expression of cytokines after reperfused myocardial infarction: possible trigger for cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2007, 293, H3014H3019.
  • 136
    Kanno, S., Kovacs, A., Yamada, K. A., Saffitz, J. E., Connexin43 as a determinant of myocardial infarct size following coronary occlusion in mice. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2003, 41, 681686.
  • 137
    Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Kovacs, A., Kanter, E. M., et al., Reduced expression of Cx43 attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction via impaired TGF-beta signaling. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2010, 298, H477H487.
  • 138
    Navas-Acien, A., Bleys, J., Guallar, E., Selenium intake and cardiovascular risk: what is new? Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 2008, 19, 4349.
  • 139
    McClung, J. P., Roneker, C. A., Mu, W., Lisk, D. J. et al., Development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice overexpressing cellular glutathione peroxidase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004, 101, 88528857.
  • 140
    Wang, X. D., Vatamaniuk, M. Z., Wang, S. K., Roneker, C. A., et al., Molecular mechanisms for hyperinsulinaemia induced by overproduction of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase-1 in mice. Diabetologia 2008, 51, 15151524.
  • 141
    Labunskyy, V. M., Lee, B. C., Handy, D. E., Loscalzo, J. et al., Both maximal expression of selenoproteins and selenoprotein deficiency can promote development of type 2 diabetes-like phenotype in mice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2011, 14, 23272336.
  • 142
    Tiwary, A. K., Stegelmeier, B. L., Panter, K. E., James, L. F., et al., Comparative toxicosis of sodium selenite and selenomethionine in lambs. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 2006, 18, 6170.
  • 143
    Jackson, M. I., Combs, G. F. Jr., Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 2008, 11, 718726.
  • 144
    Yamniuk, A. P., Ishida, H., Lippert, D., Vogel, H. J., Thermodynamic effects of noncoded and coded methionine substitutions in calmodulin. Biophys. J. 2009, 96, 14951507.
  • 145
    Rana, S. V., Metals and apoptosis: recent developments. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2008, 22, 262284.
  • 146
    Misra, S., Niyogi, S., Selenite causes cytotoxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes by inducing oxidative stress. Toxicol. In Vitro 2009, 23, 12491258.
  • 147
    Spallholz, J. E., Hoffman, D. J., Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds. Aquat. Toxicol. 2002, 57, 2737.