Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way—a randomized-controlled human intervention trial
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012
© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 57, Issue 2, pages 191–202, February 2013
How to Cite
Ostertag, L. M., Kroon, P. A., Wood, S., Horgan, G. W., Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, E., Saha, S., Duthie, G. G. and de Roos, B. (2013), Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way—a randomized-controlled human intervention trial. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 57: 191–202. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200283
- Issue published online: 22 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 9 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 14 MAY 2012
- Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS)
- Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
- Cardiovascular disease;
- Platelet function;
- Randomized-controlled human intervention trial
We examined whether flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark and white chocolate, beneficially affects platelet function in healthy subjects, and whether this relates to flavan-3-ol bioavailability.
Methods and results
A total of 42 healthy subjects received an acute dose of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark, standard dark or white chocolate, in random order. Blood and urine samples were obtained just before and 2 and 6 h after consumption for measurements of platelet function, and bioavailability and excretion of flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate significantly decreased adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation and P-selectin expression in men (all p ≤ 0.020), decreased thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation and increased thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced fibrinogen binding in women (both p ≤ 0.041), and increased collagen/epinephrine-induced ex vivo bleeding time in men and women (p ≤ 0.042). White chocolate significantly decreased adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet P-selectin expression (p = 0.002) and increased collagen/epinephrine-induced ex vivo bleeding time (p = 0.042) in men only. Differences in efficacy by which flavan-3-ols affect platelet function were only partially explained by concentrations of flavan-3-ols and their metabolites in plasma or urine.
Flavan-3-ols in dark chocolate, but also compounds in white chocolate, can improve platelet function, dependent on gender, and may thus beneficially affect atherogenesis.