Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way—a randomized-controlled human intervention trial
Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012
© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 57, Issue 2, pages 191–202, February 2013
How to Cite
Ostertag, L. M., Kroon, P. A., Wood, S., Horgan, G. W., Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, E., Saha, S., Duthie, G. G. and de Roos, B. (2013), Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way—a randomized-controlled human intervention trial. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 57: 191–202. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200283
- Issue online: 22 JAN 2013
- Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 9 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 14 MAY 2012
- Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS)
- Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
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Figure S1. Flow chart showing volunteer recruitment, screening, and randomization processes. Adapted from CONSORT Statement 2010 Flow Diagram .
Figure S2. Representative standard curves for (a) catechins in plasma (b) catechins in urine, and (c) dimers in urine, plotting ratios of analyte/IS peak area against the standards' concentrations.
Figure S3. Total catechin and dimer concentrations after enzyme hydrolysis in urine: corrected for urinary creatinine, noncorrected concentrations, and total amounts.
Figure S4. Distribution of catechin metabolites in urine 6 h after consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate in 38 subjects and separately for 24 females and 14 males.
Figure S5. Overview of the inhibition of ex vivo bleeding time (or shear-stress induced platelet aggregation) in healthy humans measured by the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 upon daily consumption of flavan-3-ols.
Table S1. Full list of ingredients for all study chocolates.
Table S2. Differences in platelet function at baseline depending on gender.
Table S3. Postprandial changes in agonist-induced platelet aggregation, ex vivo bleeding time, platelet P-selectin expression, and fibrinogen binding, compared with baseline, upon acute consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, standard dark chocolate, and white chocolate in all 42 subjects, and in female and male subjects only.
Table S4. Levels of catechins in plasma and urine, and levels of procyanidin dimers in urine upon acute consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, standard dark chocolate, and white chocolate in all 42 subjects, and in female and male subjects only.
Table S5. Types of contraception used by nine out of 11 premenopausal women using contraception.
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