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Figure S1. Schematic of proposed mechanism underlying the protective effect of GSE on adiposity and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed mice. ACAT, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase; Cho, cholesterol; ChREBP, carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein; CPT, carnitine palmitoyltransferase; FA, fatty acid; FAS, fatty acid synthase; G6PD, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; GSE, grape skin extract; ME, malic enzyme; PAP, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase; PPARγ, peroxisome prolifrerator-activated receptor γ; SCD1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase; TG, triglyceride.

Table S1. Composition of experimental diets (unit: % of diet)

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